Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Investigation into the Force of a Bullet

Investigation into the Force of a Bullet The Force of a Bullet             Abstract: The aim of the experiment was to uncover whether or not, if when a person is shot in a movie and falls backwards is realistic. As the experiment was to see how far back a person goes when shot, the following hypothesis was made: if the momentum of a bullet out of a nerf gun is passed on to a toy soldier, then it will travel backwards because of the Momentum Conservation Principle. The hypothesis will be tested by using a nerf gun and bullet that will be shot at a toy soldier from various distances. Through the experimental data recorded, the hypothesis was found to be supported, however a new hypothesis could be developed to better suit this experiment. Introduction: 21st century movies show dramatic improvements in the special effects that are used to make a better movie. Over time, shooting scenes have been the main point decider in movies in whether or not it seemed realistic or over exaggerated. Although Computer-Generated-Imagery (CGI) helps to make these scenes better, how reliable is the recoil of a person falling back from taking a shot in the chest, shoulder or even the head. The realism of shooting in movies will be explored through investigating and experimenting to find out how realistic someone being shot and falling backwards is. The movie that will be used as the reference or comparison for this experiment is The Brothers Grimsby released in 2016 as an action cross adventure genre. The key scene that will be used from the movie is when Nobby, played by Sacha Baron Cohen, shoots two enemies using a 9mm gun as shown in the photo. This movie is used as the comparison due to the shooting scene looking realistic, in that when the two enemies are shot, they only fall backwards and dont jump back five meters, giving the appearance of a realistic shot or kill. For the experiment, a nerf gun was used as the replica gun for this experiment. The areas that will be explored in the experiment include Newtons Third Law, which is defined as For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction (Physicsclassroom.com, 2017). Newtons Third Law affects the experiment in that when the bullet is shot from the nerf gun, the energy behind the bullet is equal to that of when it hits the object and pushes it back while the bullet deflects in any given direction. Newtons Third Law relates to the Momentum Conservation Principle. The principle is a collision between object 1 and object 2 in an isolated system. The total momentum of the two objects before the collision is equal to the amount of momentum after the collision (Physicsclassroom.com, 2017). The expression of the above text can be shown through the equation of, F1 = -F2. It shows that the magnitude is the same but in opposite directions. The impulse in an object is equal to the change in momentum of that object (the impulse momentum change theorem). This means that the object contains positive and equal impulses. As an equation, this is expressed as:- p1xà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  V1=p2x à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  V2 p= momentum à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  V= change in velocity Theoretical Calculations: The scale that is used is 1:32 and came from the size of the object in which it represents a six and a half foot tall person. Nerf gun bullet speed is 44.6 ft/s or 13.6 m/s meaning when scaled to see if the bullet is roughly the same speed of a 9mm bullet (Stoked About Science, 2017). The results came from an external experiment where the average firing speed was found. Scale used is 1:32, therefore 3244.6 = 1427.2 ft/s 3213.6 = 435.2 m/s The muzzle velocity of a 9mm bullet is 1246.7 ft/s or 380 m/s. The nerf gun when scaled is around the same speed of a 9mm, therefore it allows the experiment to be a realistic scale replica of the movies shooting scene. Momentum of the nerf bullet where mass of bullet equals 0.001kg. Momentum= mass x velocity p= m x v p= 0.001 x 13.6 p= 0.0136 kg/ms-1 m= mass of nerf bullet (1 gram) v= speed of nerf bullet in (13.6 ms-1) Momentum of the bullet equals 0.0136 kilograms-metre per second. Using the momentum change theorem to find how far back the soldier went. P= momentum P1=0.0136 P2=Unknown à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  v= change in velocity à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  v1=13.6 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  v2=0.036 The equation is rearranged to find m2 Therefore the momentum of the toy soldier is equal to change in momentum of p1-p2. Change in momentum To find the length of how far back the toy soldier went, the acceleration formula is used. a = acceleration (ms2) 13.60 = 13.6-2.6810-3 vf = the final velocity (m/s) vi = the initial velocity (m/s) t = the time in which the change occurs (s) By finding the time, we can now calculate the distance by using the formula The theoretical length of the distance of how far back the toy soldier should go is 0.49 meters. Hypothesis: By using the background research that has been collected, the following hypothesis for the experiment was formed. If the momentum of a bullet out of a nerf gun is passed on to a toy soldier, then it will travel backwards because of the Momentum Conservation Principle. Material List: Nerf Gun The nerf gun was used as the comparison weapon to the 9mm gun used in the movie as it had similar speeds when scaled. Toy Soldier The toy soldier was the scaled replica of a human which was also the item that was shot at. Tape measure A tape measure was used to calculate the distance from where the shooter would be and to measure the length of how far back the toy soldier went when shot. 30cm ruler A ruler was used to keep the toy soldier parallel to the spot where they were going to be shot from. Enclosed Dome measuring scale The scale was used to measure the mass of the soldier to help with calculations for the theoretical data. Method: As the materials required could be sourced from home, there wasnt any needed to be ordered at school. Finding a suitable place that wouldnt be affected was the first priority as wind could easily blow the bullets around and have made the experiment harder to do. The classroom next to the physics room wasnt in use and due to it having enough room to shoot; it was the perfect area to conduct the experiment. Some desk and chairs needed to be moved to allow a wide and long enough section where the tape measure could be laid out. A 30cm ruler was used as a reference point and laid across the two metre mark on the measuring tape. The toy soldiers were placed just behind the ruler so they were parallel to the two metre mark on the tape measure. The shooter held the nerf gun at the four metre mark (two meters away from the targets) and shot the soldiers five times. Before every shot was taken, the shooter made sure that the front of the gun wasnt past the four metre mark on the barrel so then the results would be as consistent as they could be. The range of where the shooter was changed at the end of the five shots by one metre (three metres away from the target) to see if there would be a change in the distance of how far back the toy soldier went. Five shots (that hit the targets) were fired again and the results recorded into a table. The distance was changed for the final length to be four metres away from the toy soldiers with five shots that hit the toy soldiers to be recorded. The results that were recorded took the data of the travel of the toy soldier from where it had been placed. The dependent variable for the experiment is the change in distances of how far back the bullet was shot from. The independent variable of the test was the speed of the bullet as it didnt change (the same gun was used). The controlled variable of the test was the object being hit and the room that the experiment was conducted in. A layout of the experiment is shown below. Safety: The safety procedures that were followed consisted of wearing safety glasses and having an empty room. Although there was minimal chance of a bullet deflecting into an eye, glasses were worn to prevent any injuries to the eye. Having an empty room meant that there wasnt anyone to accidently hit compared to if the experiment was conducted in the main teaching room where there were other experiments being conducted. Results: The results of the experiment have been collected and recorded into the table below. Table 1. Shot No. Range from target (m) Distance from where the toy soldier was placed (m) 1 2 1.48 2 2 1.37 3 2 0.15* 4 2 1.89 5 2 0.95 Average of shot 1-5 excluding shot 3(*) 2 1.42 6 3 1.63 7 3 0.62 8 3 0.84 9 3 1.47 10 3 1.12 Average of shot 6-10 3 1.13 11 4 0.96 12 4 1.15 13 4 1.21 14 4 0.76 15 4 0.89 Average of shot 11-15 4 0.99 (*) means that shot 3 is not included in average calculation due to it being an anomaly. Result from theoretical calculations. Table 2. Shot No. Range from target (m) Distance from where the toy soldier was placed (m) 1 unknown 0.49 A chart of the average distance of how far back the toy soldier is displayed below to show the averages from the distances shot. Graph 1 Discussion and Conclusion: Looking at the results from table one and the graph one, a pattern emerges that shows how the further away the shooter is, the less the toy soldier goes back. Table one shows that although there is a decrease in the length of how far back the toy soldier goes; the results were not all similar to each other in that there wasnt just a two or five centimetre difference, but a 10-30 cm difference. Graph one shows the average of how far back the toy soldier goes and shows that the further back the shooter is, the less momentum there is to pass onto the object. In the first five shots, (range of two metres) an anomaly occurred that was not included in graph one. Compared to the other distances, it was not included as it had an 80cm gap between the next smallest distance that was recorded. The reason for why this occurred is unknown but the most logical reason for this anomaly is that the bullet hit the ground just before hitting the toy soldier loosing most of its momentum before impact. The results from the experiment also are similar to a real world bullet, in that when a bullet is fired, wind, air resistance and gravity affect the travel and trajectory of where it will land. Wind impacts the sideways movement and with air resistance, it slows down the speed of the bullet. Gravity impacts the height and overall distance of the bullet. These three impacts affect the nerf bullet just the same, but a lot more as the bullet its lighter and has less energy behind it. The results from the experiment shown in table one and graph one show the distance decreases as the shot is taken further back. Compared to the theoretical table, the results between the theoretical and experimental calculations are not similar as there is a significant difference in the distances when compared. The theoretical result is close to the distance of how far back the two people go in the movie The Brothers Grimsby where the experimental results are about a metre off. The results from the table and chart from the experiment show that increasing distance from where the shooter shoots from will reduce the distance of how far the toy soldier travels backwards. Therefore the hypothesis, If the momentum of a bullet out of a nerf gun is passed on to a toy soldier, then it will travel backwards because of the Momentum Conservation Principle is shown to be supported. Evaluation: The errors of the experiment consist of the shooter and the environment. The errors of the shooter involve accuracy, data recording and the position of where the gun was held. The environment that the experiment was held in also affected the results in how the bullet was affected by its surroundings (air conditions) and also the room itself. Accuracy of the bullet hitting the toy soldier had a major effect to how far back the soldier would go backwards. The reason why this was a problem is because if the bullet hits the soldier in the arm, then it wont go straight back, but more of a diagonally path that is to the left or right of the soldier. The momentum transfer is also affected because the arm is smaller than the bullet, not all of the energy will transfer compared to if it was shot in the chest. Data recording was done to a good standard, yet improvements can be made to make sure the right length is recorded to improve overall accuracy. As the toy soldier is five centimetres long, choosing what spot (head, feet or the chest) to look at to measure from when next to the tape measure was a problem. The solution to fix this is to have a laser set up with the point of the toy soldier that it furthest away from where it was when shot. This solution would give an increase in accuracy with the way data is recorded. The position of where the shot was made from also affected the results taken, but also how much momentum the bullet had upon impact. If the gun is in front of the point where it should be on the measuring tape, then the bullet will have more momentum than if it was shot from behind the point on the measuring tape. Although this will have only minor affects, a centimetre or two will decrease the accuracy of the average distance of how far back the toy soldier went. The overall experiment can be improved to help the accuracy of the results. Although the nerf gun is scaled down in the speed of a real gun, by having real guns and bullets the experiment will be similar to that of the movie scene. The object that would be shot at could be a pig or mannequin (as shown in MythBusters) that is similar in size and weight of a real person and placed on a stand to hold it up right. In the experiment, different bullet sizes can be used to see the differences of a .22 to a 9mm to a 50 calibre. The hypothesis for the experiment that was conducted can be improved. The new hypothesis that could be tested is, when a nerf bullet is shot at a toy soldier, the distance of how far back it moves will decrease as the range is increased. Bibliography In-text: (Grimsby Brothers,2016) Your Bibliography: Grimsbys Finest Nobby Opens Up About New Film Detailing His Life. Newscom Au. N.p., 2017. Web. 4 Mar. 2017. In-text: (9mm Ammo, 2017) Your Bibliography: 9mm Ammo. (2017). [online] Available at: http://9ammo.com/ [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017]. TOY MICROWAVE PICTURE In-text: (Aliexpress.com, 2017) Your Bibliography: Aliexpress.com. (2017). toy microwave Picture [online] Available at: http://www.aliexpress.com/item-img/1-Soft-Bullet-Clip-And-20-Pcs-Bullets-For-Nerf-Gun-Toy-Cartridge-Dart-Magazine-Ammo/32510200688.html# [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017]. MOMENTUM In-text: (Physicsclassroom.com, 2017) Your Bibliography: Physicsclassroom.com. (2017). Momentum. [online] Available at: http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/momentum/u4l1a.cfm [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017]. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION PRINCIPLE In-text: (Physicsclassroom.com, 2017) Your Bibliography: Physicsclassroom.com. (2017). Momentum Conservation Principle. [online] Available at: http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/momentum/Lesson-2/Momentum-Conservation-Principle [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017]. NEWTONS THIRD LAW In-text: (Physicsclassroom.com, 2017) Your Bibliography: Physicsclassroom.com. (2017). Newtons Third Law. [online] Available at: http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/newtlaws/Lesson-4/Newton-s-Third-Law [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017]. NERF GUN DART SPEED-PART 2 STOKED ABOUT SCIENCE In-text: (Stoked About Science, 2017) Your Bibliography: Stoked About Science. (2017). Nerf Gun Dart Speed-part 2 Stoked About Science. [online] Available at: http://stokedaboutscience.com/episodes/nerf-guns2/ [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017]. WHAT ARE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES?-NCES KIDS ZONE In-text: (Nces.ed.gov, 2017) Your Bibliography: Nces.ed.gov. (2017). What are Independent and Dependent Variables?-NCES Kids Zone. [online] Available at: https://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/help/user_guide/graph/variables.asp [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017].

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Cambodia And United Nations :: essays research papers

Cambodia is a small country located in Southeast Asia bordering the Gulf of Thailand. Cambodia lies between Thailand and Vietnam. It occupies a total area of 181,040 square kilometers, and out of all of this, only 176,520 square kilometers are on land. Cambodia has a 2,572-kilometer long land boundary and 443 kilometer coastline.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cambodia has a tropical climate like most countries in Southeast Asia. In this tropical climate, there is a rainy, monsoon season from May to October. The dry season lasts from December to March. The land terrain in Cambodia is mostly made up of low lands, flat plains, with mountains in the Southwest and north. There is a wide amount of natural resources in Cambodia. The natural resources include, timber, gemstones, manganese, phosphates, and hydropower potential.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The main kind of agriculture in Cambodia is subsistence farming. This is where the food you grow on your farm is for your own good. The opposite of subsistence farming is commercial farming where big industries farm for commercial profit. The Mekong river floods the fields in the wet season, making the land perfect for growing rice, which is their main cash crop. Even though they grow a lot of rice, their main export is rubber, and their man import is machinery.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cambodia has a small population compared to the many states of the United States of America. As of July 1993, Cambodia had a total population of 9,898,900. The nationality, or the names of the people who live in Cambodia are Cambodian(s). The primary ethnic group that makes up 90% of the total population is Khmer. The major religion in Cambodia is Theravada Buddhism. About 95% of the people in Cambodia follow this religion. The official language is Khmer, and French is the second most common language.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The French colonized Cambodia for 83 years. Cambodia became independent in November 1953. This was because Norodom Sihanuk led a peaceful independence movement against the French. Norodom Sihanuk was the current Prince of Cambodia at that time.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Soon after this, a communist group called the Khmer Rouge, which was lead by Pol Pot and backed up by the Chinese stepped in. They were in charge of Cambodia for eight years. Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge murder millions of innocent Cambodians. Their rule ended when the Vietnamese took control.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Royal Government of Cambodia administers the government in Cambodia. There are currently two Prime Ministers, who are Hun Sen, and Ran Narit.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Media Thinness and Teenagers

The following paper will present a counterargument to the idea that body image is shaped by attitudes in the media.   Part of this counterargument will rely on the fact that thinness is cultural problem and not a media problem as will be examined using the peer reviewed article Ingrassia & Springen wrote The body of the beholder,   which examines attitudes of race in regards to body thinness and how Caucasian women are more strict on their bodies while African American women, due to culture, perceive their normal bodies to be normal.The other argument being presented in this paper will be on how models do not warp young girls’ minds to the ideas of thinness but rather it is an individual perspective that allows women to feel as though they are not thin enough.   Thus the paper’s main idea will be that media does not present a too thin body but rather it is in the perception of the culture that does this.Part A Body image in the media is used to represent a product and to sell that product, like coca-cola or something else.   The media giants choose thin models not as them saying to how women should look but rather as a way to how they want their product to appear to the audience; thus, the scope of this problem comes from teenagers, girls, who buy into the marketing media of supermodel thinness, and then become anorexic to fit this ideal.The idea of thinness is misconstrued on the idea that women’s bodies are too thin and thus those too thin bodies present to the advertising world what their body should look like, but this is not true.   Thinness is in the eye of the beholder, â€Å"When individuals evaluate their appearance, they can either concur or disagree with other evaluators.   If dissensus occurs its direction can be either self enhancing or self-denigrating† (Levinson 1986; 330).Women and men are sensible enough to know what is too thin to be realistic; often times media transform their model’s bodies and digitally improve or reduce the model’s body thus presenting a false image.   This is not done in order to tell young girls that their bodies should be thin but in keeping in mind with the best possible way to present the product of the advertisement, therefore the problem is affecting a mass amount of people, especially in the western society since marketing is targeting these countries.   The fact that such images are digitally ‘improved’ in one way or another is no secret and therefore the good reason that such images produce too thin body ideals does not hold against the argument that they indeed do,I mean we can alter that body shape definitely†¦I mean the computer can pretty much do anything.   You can alter it†¦they don’t tend to †¦but its kind of up to the model editor†¦You make ‘em†¦sort of squish them together to make them look thinner (Milkie 2002; 851).Another argument against the too thin body image present ed in the media is that this is more of a cultural attitude.   In The body of the beholder the authors stress that more often than not Caucasian women have poor images of themselves while African American women do not; this is due to culture and not to media; in other words, the body image is in the eyes of the beholder and not in the eyes of the media, â€Å"Quite commonly researchers restrict samples to white subjects or ignore race as an independent variable in their designs.   However, existing anecdotal and case studies report that blacks assign positive qualities of well-being and power to heavy-women† (Levinson et al. 1986; 331).Part B Culture teaches that thinness is the ultimate ideal; but whose culture?   The argument of this paper now becomes mingled with the fact that American culture is imitating African American culture in dress, song, and literature.   Rap, Hip-Hop and Gansta Rap are all becoming the values by which the culture focuses its appearance ri ght down to cars, jewelry, clothing, and body image.   It is now considered normal to have grills on one’s teeth, to wear ‘bling’ and to copy in whatever capacity possible the African American culture and nowhere is this seen more often than in suburban neighborhoods as rap sales are more than half sold to young white audiences.With this new found cultural thing alive in the American culture the other argument evolves into one that also mirrors the body image of African American women which is voluptuousThe minority respondents, in sharp contrast, did not emulate these images nor compare themselves as negatively with the models.   Even though most of the black girls occasionally read the mainstream publications, they considered the images less relevant, belonging to ‘white girls’ culture and not part of a reference group toward which they oriented themselves†¦The black girls indicated that they did not relate to the images and did not wish t o emulate the rigid white beauty ideal (Milkie 1999; 200).African American women present to culture their body image as counter to waiflike, with curves and in fact African American women are more content with their body image than white women and this goes against the media portraying real, curvy women.   Adolescence will impersonate whatever they see as ‘cool’ or popular and right now there are two conflicting things that arise; the ideal of the waiflike woman, and the ideal of the more voluptuous woman as seen in African American culture.An adolescent will turn to whatever is deemed as cool in their social clique.   This leads to the fact that since American culture has included into its ‘cool’ factor the images of African American women that soon the idea of thinness will be counter culture and African American women’s standards will be the normal standard, â€Å"†¦there’s growing evidence that black and white girls view their bo dies in dramatically different ways.The latest finding come in a study to be published in the journal Human Organization this spring by a team of black and white researchers at the University of Arizona.   While 90 percent of the white junior-high and high school girls studied voiced dissatisfaction with their weight, 70 percent of African-American teens were satisfied with their bodies† (Ingrassia & Springen 1995; 66).This study goes on to state that even when overweight black teenagers were interviewed they still viewed themselves and described themselves as happy.   This source of size in fact is somewhat of a source of pride, the study further emphasized other different facets by which white and black girls viewed themselves, â€Å"Asked to describe women as they age, two thirds of the black teens said they get more beautiful, and many cited their mothers as examples.   White girls responded that their mothers may have been beautiful—back in their youth.   Says anthropologist Mimi Nichter, one of ht study’s coauthors, ‘In white culture, the window of beauty is so small’ (Ingrassia & Springen 1995; 66).Part C Thus, the problems of thinness arrive from the culturally dishonest.   Black and white girls are exposed to the same media but their sense of self identity as seen in that media is quite different as the above statements have proven.   Thus, the ideals of beauty are the main contributors of what is considered to be normal.   White girls see 5 foot 7 inches and between 100 to 110 pounds to be normal while African American girls describe their ideal size as exhibiting full hips, thick thighs, and basically in the words of Sir Mix-A lot ‘baby got back’ (Ingrassia & Springen 1995; 66).   These African American teens also described ideal beauty has having the right attitude.†¦African American mothers must teach their daughters how to negotiate between two often confliction cultures: Black a nd white and must prepare daughters to cope with the racial and sexual dangers in the realities of the world that Black women must confront†¦Black mothers also play an important role in mitigating the dominant culture’s devaluing messages by providing more positive messages and alternatives to the white middle class ideal to their daughters to offset the negative reflections they see of themselves in the eye of the dominant culture (Lovejoy 2001: 253).This study only further exemplifies the argument in this paper that it is not the media that perpetuates the cult of thinness but rather this false ideal is found in the fact that perception is the ingredient in thinness.   Culture is the curse from which thinness arises,Underlying the beauty gap are 200 years of cultural differences. â€Å"In white, middleclass America, part of the great American Dream of making it is to be able to make yourself over,† says Nichter. â€Å"In the black community, there is the real ity that you might not move up the ladder as easily. As one girl put it, you have to be realistic-if you think negatively about yourself, you won't get anywhere.† It's no accident that Barbie has long embodied a white adolescent ideal-in the early days, she came with her own scale (set at 110) and her own diet guide (â€Å"How to Lose Weight: Don't Eat†).Even in this post-feminist era, Barbie's tight-is-right message is stronger than ever. Before kindergarten, researchers say, white girls know that Daddy eats and Mommy diets. By high school, many have split the world into physical haves and have-nots, rivals across the beauty line. â€Å"It's not that you hate them [perfect girls],† says Sarah Immel, a junior at Evanston Township High School north of Chicago. â€Å"It's that you're kind of jealous that they have it so easy, that they're so perfect-looking.† (Ingrassia & Springen 1995; 66).Thus, the black ideal can be argued to be less limiting, and less fo cused on something that is unrealistic.   Since white culture stresses the make-over then black culture stresses self respect and being happy with ‘you’.   In Ingrassia & Springen’s article they quote Tyra Banks, a supermodel who had said that in high school she was the envy of her white friends when she would repeatedly say that she wanted thighs like her black girlfriends; the split of culture is clearly found in this fact.The media centers on selling a product through presentation of an ideal body.   However, the media world is being taken over by Black culture from BET to Fox.   The ideals are changing with regards to body image.   The strongest signal that is competing for body image is peer pressure.   Since groups of teens are influential with their friends the black community is able to reiterate their ideals of body image to their friends and since they do not emulate the waiflike figures of supermodels so common in culturally white media (wh ich is diminishing) they are more able to disregard the unrealistic image presented to them in advertisements.White girls however are suffering from their own culture and the reiteration of this culture not only through media at times but through the concept that has been taught to them that their mothers are always on a diet.   White culture has taught these girls more than the media has that their daddies eat and their mothers are on diets (Ingrassia & Springen 1995; 66).Ingrassia & Springen further emphasize that white culture teaches that it is okay and even normal to have an eating disorder such as anorexia or bulimia, but in black culture these are even more of a phenomenon as black girls do not succumb to this masochism since their culture does not present it as a strong factor to be considered normal, â€Å"Black teens don't usually go to such extremes. Anorexia and bulimia are relatively minor problems among African-American girls.And though 51 percent of the black teens in the study said they'd dieted in the last year, follow-up interviews showed that far fewer were on sustained weight-and-exercise programs. Indeed, 64 percent of the black girls thought it was better to be â€Å"a little† overweight than underweight. And while they agreed that â€Å"very overweight† girls should diet, they defined that as someone who â€Å"takes up two seats on the bus.†Ã¢â‚¬ Ã‚   (Ingrassia & Springen 1995; 66).Ingrassia & Springen state in their study that 90% of white girls have some dissatisfaction with their bodies and that 62% of them are on a diet within the past year.   The study further states that 70% of black girls are happy with their body image and 64% say that it is better to be a little overweight than a little underweight (Ingrassia & Springen 1995; 66).This paper has stated that the media’s norms are changing with the introduction and focus on black culture that presents different body images.   The paper further s tated that media was not the only device by which white girls receive their dissatisfied approach to their own bodies but with their mother’s influence of dieting thinness became an ideal.   It is with the changing cultural norms of switching focus from white culture to black culture that new media images will begin to filter into society as is exemplified through programs on television such as Queen Latifah whose body image though overweight by white culture standards is considered to be beautiful with black cultures.   Thus, the focus of a more voluptuous body, with curves, and a larger ‘booty’ is becoming the American standard.BibliographyDittmar, Helga & Sarah Howard.   (December 2004).   Professional hazards? The impact  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   of models' body size on advertising effectiveness and women's body-focused  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   anxiety in professions that do and do not emphasize the cultural ideal of  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   thinness. British Journal Of Social Psychology, 43(4), 477-497.Dohnt, Hayley & Marika Tiggemann.   (September 2006).   The contribution of peer and  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   media influences to the development of body satisfaction and self-esteem in  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   young girls: a prospective study.   Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 929-936.Ingrassia, Michele; Springen, Karen.   (24 April 1995).  Ã‚   The body of the beholder.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Newsweek,  Ã‚   Vol. 125 Issue 17, p66.Levinson, Richard et al.   (Dec. 1986).   Social Location, Significant Others and Body  Ã‚  Ã‚   Image Among Adolescents.   Social Psychology Quarterly.   Vol. 49, No. 4,  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   pp330-337.Lovejoy, Meg.   (April 2001).   Disturbances in the Social Body:   Differences in Body  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Image And Eating Problems Among African American and White Women.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Gender and Socie ty.   Vol. 15.   No. 2. pp239-261.Milkie, Melissa.   (December 2002).   Contested Images of Femininity: An Analysis ofCultural Gatekeepers’ Struggles with the ‘Real Girl’ Critique.   Gender andSociety.   Vol. 16, No. 6.   pp839-859.Milkie, Melissa A.   (June 1999).   Social Comparisons, Reflected Appraisals, and Mass  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Media:The Impact of Pervasive Beauty Images on Black and White Girls’ Self Concepts. Social Psychology Quarterly.   Vol. 62, No. 2.   pp190-210.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Chicano Men A Cartography Of Homosexual Identity And...

Professor Gutierrez Course 15752 22 October 2015 Chicano Men: A Cartography of Homosexual Identity and Behavior Chicano men identify their sexual identity and sexual orientation based on what is more important to them: To identify as Chicano gay or as a gay Chicano? Chicano gay men emphasize on ethnicity while Chicano Gay men identify with their orientation. The primary difference between a Chicano gay man and a European-American gay man is how they define homosexuality. In the United States, homosexuality is defined as â€Å"the biological sex of the person toward whom sexual activity is directed.† (Almaguer 257). A man who is physically involved in sexual relations with another man automatically gets his identity questioned. In contrast, a Mexican man will define homosexuality as â€Å"the act one wants to perform with another person (of either biological sex).† Mexican/Latin-American has a sexual system that focuses primarily in passive and aggressive. Primarily, there is very little to no research done on Chicano homosexuality. This is not to say that Chicano gay men don†™t exist but most research that has been done is autobiographical. Since Chicano and Mexican population share many cultural patterns, we turn our attention to Mexican homosexuality and infer that Chicano homosexuality will also share many patterns as well. Chicana lesbianism has been documented more often and both are similar in which both sexual deviances face the same challenges when facing their families.