Saturday, August 31, 2019

English – Courage

It might be said: Courage No one is born with courage, but rather born with the potential to be courageous. Courage is not always an act of great bravery, but can also be expressed in the most average day to day actions. But when death is staring into your eyes, only a handful of people can persevere through the hardships and challenges using the courage in their hearts. Courage is being scared to death†¦ and saddling up anyway.Many composers portray courage in the presence of death, danger and fear and show that to be able to go beyond the boundaries of death, danger and fear one must show the courage to stare into the eyes of death itself. Roberto Benigni in his film ‘Life is Beautiful' (1997), Sir Alfred Lord Tennyson in his poem ‘Charge of the Light Brigade' (1854) and Andrew Stanton's ‘Finding Nemo' (2003) all contain characters who display tremendous amount of courage and be able to stand up against life risking situations.In these texts, composers have i mplemented techniques to show that courage is fumed by the feelings of determination, love and to save a life. To be able to act upon a life risking situations one must show determination. Roberto Benigni's film, ‘Life is Beautiful' is ‘jam-packed' with characters that show extremely courageous characteristics who are ambitious and make a genuine attempt to maintain them. The character Dora displays the feelings of determination as she attempts to unite with her family, as her son, husband and uncle are forced on a train which is transferring them to a concentration camp.Dora understanding that this train will lead to unavoidable danger is the courage that was displayed. Dora asks the officer courteously to get on the train, when she is rejected her tone and facial expressions suddenly change into a more serious state when she demands, â€Å"I want to get on that train. Did you hear me? I want to get on that train! † It is evident through this speech that Dora is determined to stay with her family, because she believes her family is undoubtedly worth risking her life for.In addition to the speech, Dora's outfit is bright red and symbolises her ambition, love and determination. Her beautiful red coat juxtaposes with the situation and environment, as her clothing portrays courage and on the contrary the smoke filled sky and the gloomy colours of the soldiers portray the tragedy the train is headed towards. This scene clearly shows Dora's determination, displaying her courage to act upon a situation leading to unknown dangers. As well as Benigni, Alfred Lord Tennyson also shows the need of determination when being courageous.Tennyson's poem is about soldiers fighting for what they believe in, knowing death can be just around the corner. Similar to Dora, the Light Brigade soldiers must show determination in order to accomplish and reach their goals. The repetition of â€Å"Into the valley of death, Rode the six hundred† symbolises a point of no return, where death is imminent. It also emphasises on the immense need for determination for them to advance into a fearsome clash of swords. â€Å"Volley'd and thunder'd,† the onomatopoeia instills a strong sense of fear into the soldiers and emphasises on the inescapable danger of the situation.The constant verbs and visual imagery allows the reader to feel and see the horrors of the battle allowing them to understand their determination. Both texts depict the necessity of determination to show courage specifically in a wartime period. It is the determination shown by Dora and the soldiers which allows their audiences to truly see the courage displayed when faced against death, danger and fear. It might be said: Determination is not the solitary factor to be courageous. It is also evident that love has a crucial effect on an individual to be courageous.The central figure in ‘Life is Beautiful', Guido, shows an intense amount of courage and it is all done out o f love for his son. When they are at the concentration camp Guido sacrifices many things in order to keep is son happy and nescient of the fact that the situation is ominous. In order to keep his son nescient, Guido, pretends to be a German translator, changing the rules about the camp to be about a game he made up for his son. The strong aggressive tone of the officer is antagonised by Guido's humour and the tense situation was also juxtaposed by the constant close ups ofJoshua's cheerful and bright face. It is this scene were Guido has placed himself in an intense situation which displays the love and courage within him. The officers are shown holding weapons and speaking in an aggressive town but it is also the background knowledge of the situation which allows the audience to understand the immense danger that is present. It is this knowledge of immense danger that portrays Guido's courage – fumed by love for his son – to put himself in a situation where he is gamb ling with his life.Alfred Tennyson's ‘Charge of the Light Brigade' does not only show determination, but also emphasises the love the soldiers hold towards their country. â€Å"Theirs not to make reply, Theirs not to reason why, Their but to do and die,† the repetition of ‘Theirs' shows the soldiers's patriotism because it emphasises the soldiers do it without question, they completely trust their commander's words and will do whatever necessary to bring their country to victory. The love of the soldiers is what shines their courage. Cannon to the right/left/in front,† uses visual imagery to show the intended audience the unavoidable danger that is present, but the soldiers advance forward, marching with courage shining with love for their country. The love Guido and the soldiers have are similar because it is purely acting on their own will, and consecutively for the sake of someone other than themselves. It is evident the soldiers have tremendous courage t o charge into the ‘jaws of Death' and doing so by acting upon the words of their commander – out of love for their country – which they did not question, and only obeyed.The notion that determination and love are needed to be courageous are not the only factors in this concept. It is also evident the ‘want' to save a life plays a significant impact on an individual performing a courageous act. Guido, in the climax of the film, leaves the salvation of his room in order to search for his wife and to save her from the rotting camp. With the constant sounds of explosion and gunshots and with the contextual knowledge of the situation it allows the intended audience to view his courage and his will to save his wife.By only stepping out of the sleeping rooms, Guido had put himself in imminent danger and death can hit him at any time, but Guido courageously pushed forward in order to save his wife's life. Andrew Stanton's ‘Finding Nemo' is about a ‘fish ' father who courageously and desperately travels across the world in search for his son. Marlin and his companion Dory encounter numerous situations where they had placed themselves in a life threatening situation.In order to find where his son is kept captive Marlin must keep a dangerous, aggressive and hungry fish distracted while Dory reads a piece of writing that leads to Nemo. Marlin is in an extremely dangerous position where he has become the bait and from the contextual knowledge of the situation it is evident the courage displayed by Marlin is driven by the feelings of saving his son. The speed of the music and camera shots gradually increase to a higher pace, camera angles change accordingly allowing the intended audience to feel the suspense of the situation.Both composers – Bengini and Stanton – used the camera techniques, and sound to their advantage to create a suspenseful scene and to show how dangerous the situation is. Both protagonists put themselves in extreme danger in order to save a life. This evidently shows the courage driven by the ambition to save a life, even when faced by imminent danger. It might be said: The composers used different techniques and ideas to show the fundamentals of courage in their texts.Through their knowledge and perception of the world they all showed determination, love and saving a life, in different forms. It is evident that courage is being scared to death and still being able to continue, as there is nothing more feared than death itself. The characters and situations discussed in the different texts proved to show that determination, love and saving a life are all a necessity to being courageous against a life threatening situation and hopefully their intended message of courage is clearly depicted to all intended audiences. finished

Friday, August 30, 2019

Story of Akbar and Birbal

Revenue: The amount of money that a company actually receives during a specific period, including discounts and deductions for returned merchandise. It is the â€Å"top line† or â€Å"gross income† figure from which costs are subtracted to determine net income. Revenue is calculated by multiplying the price at which goods or services are sold by the number of units or amount sold. EBITDA is essentially net income with interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization added back to it, and can be used to analyze and compare profitability between companies and industries because it eliminates the effects of financing and accounting decisions. *amortization basically means reducing the value of something to zero Debt –equity ratio: A measure of a company's financial leverage. Debt/equity ratio is equal to long-term debt divided by common shareholders' equity. Typically the data from the prior fiscal year is used in the calculation. Investing in a company with a higher debt/equity ratio may be riskier, especially in times of rising interest rates, due to the additional interest that has to be paid out for the debt. For example, if a company has long-term debt of $3,000 and shareholder's equity of $12,000, then the debt/equity ratio would be 3000 divided by 12000 = 0. 25. It is important to realize that if the ratio is greater than 1, the majority of assets are financed through debt. If it is smaller than 1, assets are primarily financed through equity. Return-on-assets: An indicator of how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. ROA gives an idea as to how efficient management is at using its assets to generate earnings. Calculated by dividing a company's annual earnings by its total assets, ROA is displayed as a percentage. Sometimes this is referred to as â€Å"return on investment†. The formula for return on assets is: Note: Some investors add interest expense back into net income when performing this calculation because they'd like to use operating returns before cost of borrowing.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Design a Flowchart for a Process

When asked to think about a process I wish to improve on for this assignment I decided to create a new process for the completion of my course work in the completion of my MBA program. Throughout the first five classes of my 12 course program I have notice that the difference in grades from an A to a B has come down to my work ethics in classes. There are several factors that have contributed to why I have not been as successful as I want to be in classes.My last course CRIB was a difficult class because I know math is a weaker subject for me and I let that intimidate me. Before that, I have a lot of outside projects I work on including a business startup so it has affected my ability and I was constantly tired from working two Jobs as well. When I finally had the energy to focus on my coursework, I sometime had issues understanding the work or material and although I could have asked being that it's an online program sometimes I don't understand math through written immunization.Whi le I did utilized the resources I still did not allow myself to get the time needed to actually understand the work. I ended up missing substantial points on my test. My flowchart design will Include my MBA coursework, and the metrics that will be applied will be time spent and grades and will be used to measure my flowcharts effectiveness. Start Review each class syllabus for the entire class Download all required course material Monday before each week starts revisit

Ethical Issues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Ethical Issues - Essay Example Computers and information systems have become part of human lives and, as a result, have created an opportunity for abuse and misuse hence raising the issue of ethics (Haag & Cummings, 2013). There is an ethical issue relating to the privacy of personal information and increasing concern about storage and access to personal details (Haag & Cummings, 2013). The risk of losing individual privacy affects information system because some people are unwilling to transact online for fear of exposing personal details to unintended persons. On the other organizations are incurring a lot of expenses to protect clients details from unauthorized users. Although organizations cannot fully prevent unauthorized access clients information, they can limit the accessibility by installing security details such as data encryption and use of passwords (Haag & Cummings, 2013). In conclusion, the use of information technology and systems has both positive and negative implications in the society. Although it has improved interactions of persons across the globe, it has caused ethical issues such as loss of privacy through unauthorized access to personal details. Organizations should improve protection of personal information. However, organizations should provide their clients with training on what information they should share and how to protect their privacy against unintended

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

REFLECTIVE JOURNAL- LEADERSHIP Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

REFLECTIVE JOURNAL- LEADERSHIP - Essay Example Therefore, I thought that I should change my leadership skill to get the support of my family members. I have started to learning about different types of leadership skills in order to implement in my own life as I am going through several issues. My dream is to become a successful nurse, but my family is finding it difficult to support mu dream due to inadequate financial condition of my family. Previously I believed in Autocratic leadership style in which I tend to make my own decision independently without taking suggestions of others as well as my family members. But, recent financial crisis and inadequate economic environment of my family has forced me to learn about different leadership style in order to influence my mother and other family members to support me to complete my Bachelor’s study in nursing. However, democratic leadership style can be valuable comparing to autocratic leadership style as it will help me to make my family members understand about the significance of my nursing studies as it will help me to develop prosperous professional career in near future (Wood, 2008). My previous experience and existing assumptions do have a serious impact on my action. It has been mentioned earlier that I used to believe in autocratic or authoritarian leadership style. I used to make my own decisions regarding my studies and career development aspect. My leadership style was almost ruler-centered that can be termed as abuse of power. However, recently I have understood that it was my selfishness that I wanted to chase my dream without understanding and realizing my inadequate family environment. My mother tried hard but failed to support my nursing studies. Therefore, I am working as a support manager in an organization in order to help my family to run daily life. Moreover, this aspect will influence my mother to consider my dreams regarding my professional career. Only, democratic

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The relation between domestic terrorism and armed forces in the U.S Essay

The relation between domestic terrorism and armed forces in the U.S. in mid-90s - Essay Example Domestic terrorism has existed and influenced the political and social structure of the United States, to varying degrees, since this country's inception. The United States Department of Justice defines domestic terrorism as: "The unlawful use of force or violence, committed by a group(s) of two or more individuals, against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives."1 Historically there have been limited cases or incidents of domestic terrorism in which active duty military personnel have been involved or implicated, most probably due to the rigid structure and character of the military environment. Although terrorism has plagued governments, and public and private institutions for centuries in one form or another, its application and the strategies associated with it have evolved as surely as the societies upon which it is imposed. Technological advances particularly in the transportation, communication and weapons field, have facilitated the abilities of modern-day domestic terrorist groups to get their message out and has improved their capacity to take violent action to achieve their goals. Recent incidents, particularly the Weaver family incident at Ruby Ridge, Idaho, and the incident at the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, have brought into question the extent to which government interdiction of armed citizen groups is actually le gitimate before it violates their Constitutional civil rights. Additionally, to what extent is the use of force against these groups acceptable In February of 1995, President Clinton introduced a counterterrorism bill into the Senate and House of Representatives. Among other extremely controversial proposals in the bill, the Department of Defense would be assigned an increased role in assisting in the investigation of domestic terrorism incidents in which chemical and biological agents were used (currently the military can be utilized in cases of terrorism in which nuclear weapons or devices are suspected or confirmed).2 Although the increased role for the military would be very limited, requiring further amendment to the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, civil liberties experts warn that it would violate the tenants of "civil supremacy over the military" and would further kindle the animosities and anti-government sentiment of the citizen-militias and conspiracy theorists.3 Additionally, many Congressmen, law-enforcement officials and some military advisers agree that such uses of the military would be an extremely dangerous avenue of approach to combating domestic terrorism. Apparent Motivation There are basically four categories into which groups that are regarded as domestic terrorists can be distinguished currently existing in the United States. These groups can be generically delineated as being either motivated by: (1) religious

Monday, August 26, 2019

GM ignition switch recall Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

GM ignition switch recall - Research Paper Example The deaths were linked to the failure of the airbags deployment during the accidents. However, reports suggested that an addition 72 persons died because of ignition key switch faults. Because of the faults, GM recalled over 29 million cars. In addition, the manufacturer incurred approximately $1.2 billion to counter the ongoing recalls and legal expenses (Cheeseman, 56). Various scholars have criticized the moral ethics exhibited by the GM management as their actions resulted in deaths and losses for the company. Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with ideas concerning what amounts to good and bad behavior. Based on the definition of ethics, it is clear that GM were ethically wrong since the management were aware of the faults in the vehicles long before they decided to recall. The management aim was to maximize the company’s profit rather than meet the customer needs. GM would have carried substantial tests of their vehicles before sale or in addition review the customer feedback concerning the vehicles. The company continued with the vehicle sales for more than seven years hence making then ethically liable. GM focused on the numbers of individuals who continued to enjoy problem free ignition related ignitions rather the ones who felt victim to the problem. Therefore, it has clearly to indicate that GM was ethically wrong. Socrates held being ethical as one of his primary role in all of his psychological theories. In addition, he held the belief that the suitable way for people to live was to aim at self-development rather than material wealth (Barry, 66). At all times, Socrates welcomed others individuals to attempt and focus more on a sense of friendships and real community since he had a sentiment that it was the suitable way for people to develop mutually as a populace. Socrates lived up to this doctrine and that is can be proved by his actions when he was

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Performance Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Performance Management - Essay Example Assessment Center: Technique that uses interviews, tests, simulations, games, and observations to evaluate an individual's potential. My department's appraisal is based on the performance measurement system that uses graphic scales. This is one of the most popular performance appraisal systems. Typically the manager can choose one of the five degrees for each criterion. The selection of the criteria to be measured can be centered on subjective factors (such as initiative and dependability) and/or on objective factors (such as quality and quantity of work). Advantages of the Graphic Scales This kind of performance measurement is quick to develop It is very easy to administer since grading is easy. It can be used easily across a number of employees for comparison. Disadvantages of the Graphic scales There is not much depth in the assessment standards. There is a probability for a contrast effect, that is an average employee following an outstanding employee may be rated as poor, an ave rage person following after an employee with a poor rating may be graded excellent There might be a friendship bias, meaning a positive form of leniency where a manager rates an employees perform better than it actually is based on his personal relationship with him. A central tendency where the managers tend towards the middle of the rating scale. A positive/negative halo when the appraiser tends to rate performance either at one extreme or another. Positive/negative leniency when the manager seems to exaggerate the swing towards better or worse performance. Ambiguity in the interpretation of scales by the manager causes poor rating. Impact on employees The performance appraisal is conducted fairly and with an open mind often has a positive... There is a probability for a contrast effect, that is an average employee following an outstanding employee may be rated as poor, an average person following after an employee with a poor rating may be graded excellent When the appraisal is e xecuted fairly and squarely, the employee comes away happy with the rating he received. Mostly, better ratings are linked to rewards and incentives commonly the raise he is eligible for the next year and most employees look forward to it. It overall improves his morale and motivates him to better his performance and hence makes reaching his goals and objectives easier. Even in areas where he has not met expectations and received a low rating, a capable appraiser is able to create reassurance in the employee of future performance and growth. Often, the appraiser and the appraised know each other well due to working side by side on a daily basis. When the given rating does not appeal to the employee, it paves the way for a lot of tension between the employee and management.  Ã‚  

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Graffiti Art in Los Angeles Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Graffiti Art in Los Angeles - Research Paper Example While he began in these small venues, today Crash is recognized as one of the fathers of the graffiti art movement, and has had a tremendous influence on Los Angeles artists. In addition to being a highly influential graffiti artist, Crash curated the seminal 1980 Graffiti Art Success for America at Fashion MODA (Chang 2005). This exhibition launched the 1980s graffiti art movement that would spread its influence to Los Angeles. Another seminal graffiti artist that emerged from New York and would go on to influence Los Angeles artists was Fab Five Freddy. Fab Five Freddy was a member of the New York graffiti group the Fabulous Five. Freddy got his name for his consistent tagging on the number five on subway walls. Freddy became a part of the seminal New York film Downtown 81, as well as a number of other seminal pop art projects (Loos 2006). While New York foregrounded many of the aesthetic elements, Los Angeles would adopt these elements and implement them into their own unique styl e. In large part Los Angeles graffiti took on gang connotations. With the sprawling urban populace, gangland delineation became a prevalent issue and in many ways graffiti art was used to mark territory. Still, there also exists a wide variety of Los Angeles graffiti artists that are producing positive and cutting-edge graffiti art. Among the seminal Los Angeles graffiti crews are WISK, SER, CHAKA, SKEEZ, TRIAX and GESO (50mm Los Angeles, 2006). One of the prevalent artists in these regards is Riskyone. Riskyone started making graffiti art in the early 1980s and has continued until the present day. His style is brash and bright, and one can detect an influence by artists such as Keith Haring and New York graffiti artists. Prime-K2S is another prominent Los Angeles artist. Prime-K2S... While New York foregrounded many of the aesthetic elements, Los Angeles would adopt these elements and implement them into their own unique style. In large part Los Angeles graffiti took on gang connotations. With the sprawling urban populace, gangland delineation became a prevalent issue and in many ways graffiti art was used to mark territory. Still, there also exists a wide variety of Los Angeles graffiti artists that are producing positive and cutting-edge graffiti art. Among the seminal Los Angeles graffiti crews are WISK, SER, CHAKA, SKEEZ, TRIAX and GESO. One of the prevalent artists in these regards is Riskyone. Riskyone started making graffiti art in the early 1980s and has continued until the present day. His style is brash and bright, and one can detect an influence by artists such as Keith Haring and New York graffiti artists. Prime-K2S is another prominent Los Angeles artist. Prime-K2S exhibits a style influenced by modern computer technology, with much of his tagging be ing indicative of the typeface that word-processors demonstrate. In these regards, it’s a uniquely modern feel that distinguishes his work from other Los Angeles artists. Finally, Tolse, who is recently deceased, is also another seminal Los Angeles graffiti artist. While Tolse style is highly exuberant, he is perhaps most recognized for finding unique areas to tag. It’s clear that while New York foreground the graffiti art movement, Los Angeles artists adopted these styles and implemented them in their own work.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Professional Mentoring program for Community Health Workers Essay

Professional Mentoring program for Community Health Workers - Essay Example n.p). For this reason, the group, through its organizers seeks funding for a part-time coordinator and stipends for participants in the program. The users of the program services will mostly constitute the unemployed people in Florida community, the adults in the local college, and any other group that the Florida Community Health coalition may refer to the group. The group targets adult students from a local community college with a purpose of offering professional health education, promotion, and care services such counseling and social support. The program is in collaboration with the Florida Community health worker CHW profession to offer skills in health and outreach in community-based setting such the homes, businesses, worship centers, and community centers. The other participants are the Federal qualified health centers and other health organizations in the area aiming at bringing sense to the residents on health living and good diet. The program will also connect the locals to the necessary bodies offering services such as insurance and making follow-ups on their progress. The other education for the adult students will be on drugs and drug abuse to help the young people on matters of healthy living by avoiding indulging themselves in drugs. Our group noted that there is a knowledge gap in our community and students studying at the local college on matters concerning health and common ailments. The mentoring period is three to six months depending on the availability of the mentor and his schedule. Community health workers are very useful in the society, and their services are vital to a healthy community. The program will equip the local people with skills of maintaining high health standards through providing first aid and nutrition information by the CHWs. The other purpose of the mentorship program will be to visit the residents in their homes and

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Benefits of Early Childhood Education Essay Example for Free

The Benefits of Early Childhood Education Essay Introduction Early childhood education is a term that is used to commonly describe the formal teaching and care of young children by individuals or professionals other than their family or in settings outside the child’s home. Based on the definition provided by the National Association for the Education of Young Children, early childhood education spans the child’s life from birth to the age of eight. That being said, the general definition adopted by the majority of school districts throughout the world will typically employ a system of early childhood education starting from birth to when a child starts school—which typically occurs at the age of five. The definitions regarding early childhood education are somewhat arbitrary; however, the majority of school jurisdictions throughout the world have defined the curriculum as taking place between a child’s birth until he or she reaches the age of 6. This period is regarded as one of the most critical in regards to a child’s development, for the years, which constitute early childhood education, denote the most influential period of growth and development. From zero to age 6 is the period of greatest growth and development for a child; at this stage, the brain develops most rapidly. During this period, a child will begin walking, talking, developing a self-esteem and manufacturing a vision of the world. As a result of these innate developments, the child will build a moral foundation that is ultimately intertwined with the ability to perform rudimentary educational tasks. Social and Emotional Development Having your child attend the same preschool programme throughout his or her early years allows him or her to develop relationships with the adults and children in that environment, which provides a sense of security. A child who is comfortable with the people in his or her life is more likely to participate in learning opportunities and in advanced cooperative play, such as role playing with others, playing games with rules, and working with others to accomplish goals. Children who experience consistency in their early childhood education programme demonstrate less aggressive behaviours, because of their ability to interact with others and use their language skills to resolve conflicts. For young children, the knowledge that teachers, other children, and daily routines will be consistent over time fosters confidence and competency in social settings. These dimensions include well-trained teaching staff, a small number of children per classroom and an enduring intervention that begins early. Reviews of effective early education strategies conclude that programs that combine early childhood education with services to support families can produce lasting positive social benefits, and can result in decreased rates of antisocial and delinquent behavior (Yoshikawa, 1995). Cognitive Development Consistency in the preschool programme can significantly impact a childs cognitive development. High-quality early childhood development programmes that provide developmentally appropriate curricula, enable children to develop specific cognitive skills at the appropriate age. Developmentally appropriate curricula help children develop cognitive skills through a developmental continuum, meaning the curricula builds on childrens existing skills and knowledge to help them acquire new skills and knowledge. In addition, curriculum programmes that incorporate developmental objectives ensure children follow a scope and sequence of age-appropriate developmental milestones throughout their time in the programme. Although research suggests that income is clearly associated with the cognitive development and achievement of children during their preschool years, studies have likewise found that the poorest children benefit the most from a high quality early education program (Brooks-Gunn, 2003; Yoshikawa, 1995). Language Development Language development occurs at a rapid pace in children between the ages of one and five years old. Children who are secure in their environment and with the people around them are more likely to engage in frequent, age-appropriate conversations. These daily interactions lead to more advanced language skills by promoting vocabulary development and conversational skills. Through activities such as daily group discussions, finger-plays, songs, and read-alouds, children develop the fundamental language skills they will continue to build on throughout their lifetimes. Researchers have posited that the proportion of kindergarteners who enter school without basic literacy and numeracy skills could be substantially higher in poor and minority communities than that of children from middle-class backgrounds (Brooks-Gunn, 2003). Skill Development Children play because it is fun. Play is also key to their learning and development. Playing, both structured and unstructured, lays the foundation for a childs development of future learning and life skills. It helps children: develop their knowledge, experience, curiosity and confidence, learn by trying things, comparing results, asking questions and meeting challenges develop the skills of language, thinking, planning, organizing and decision-making. Stimulation, play and being included in play with other children and adults are very important for children with disabilities or chronic illnesses, such as children with HIV. When parents and other caregivers talk and interact with children in their first language, it helps children develop the ability to think and express themselves. Children learn language quickly and easily through hearing and singing songs, having stories told or read to them, repeating rhymes and playing games. Girls and boys need the same opportunities for play and interaction with all family members, including siblings and grandparents, and in activities outside the home. Play and interaction with the mother and the father help strengthen the bond between the child and both parents. Additionally, the positive effects of the intervention have persisted through age 40, more than 30 years after the program ended, in the form of lower rates of crimes committed and higher monthly earnings on average when compared to adults with the same background who did not participate in the program as children (Schweinhart, 2003). Behavior Developement By watching and imitating others, young children learn how to interact socially. They learn acceptable and unacceptable kinds of behaviour. The examples set by adults, older siblings and children are the most powerful influences shaping a childs behaviour and personality. One way children learn is by copying what others do. If men and women do not treat each other equally, the child will observe, learn and probably copy this behaviour. If adults shout, behave violently, exclude or discriminate, children will learn this type of behaviour. If adults treat others with kindness, respect and patience, children will follow their example. If mothers and fathers treat each other with love and respect, this is what their children will learn and most likely replay in their adult relationships. Children like to pretend. This should be encouraged, as it develops their imagination and creativity. It also helps the child understand different ways people behave. Conclusion The benefits are evident in almost all the spheres of children’s lives. Learning through play ensures, they manage to incorporate communication skills and feel comfortable in expressing themselves. They become friendlier and slowly, they start gaining independence. Children feel a new found freedom and that helps them in the long run. Child development center is a great place to engage children in active instruction. Because of the caring nature of the teachers and caretakers, child feels at ease and gradually he stops missing his home. The nature of childhood instruction is usually one-to-one in preschools; it proves instrumental in easy identification of children for academic intervention. All in all, there are countless benefits of early childhood education and parents must ensure that their children are not deprived of this great source of learning. References Barnett, W. S. (1995). Long-term effects of early childhood programs on cognitive and school outcomes. Future of Children, 5(3), 25-50. Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Do you believe in magic? Social Policy Report, 17(1), 3- 16. Campbell, F. A. , Ramey, C. T. (1994). Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement: A follow-up study of children from low-income families. Child Development, 65, 684-698. Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. (1983). As the twig is bent . . . lasting effects of preschool programs. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Duncan, G. J. , Magnuson, K. A. (2005). Can family socioeconomic resources account for racial and ethnic test score gaps? Future of Children, 15(1), 35-54. Karoly, L. A. , Rydell, C. P. , Hoube, J. , Everingham, S. S. , Kilburn, R. , Greenwood, P. W. (1998). Investing in Our Children: What we know and dont know about the costs and benefits of early childhood interventions. Santa Monica, CA: Rand. Magnuson, K. A. , Waldfogel, J. (2005). Early childhood care and education: Effects on ethnic and racial gaps in school readiness. Future of Children, 15(1), 169-196. Phillips, D. , Adams, G. (2001). Child care and our youngest children. Future of Children, 11(1), 35-52. Rouse, C. , Brooks-Gunn, J. , McLanahan, S. (2005). Introduction to school readiness: Closing racial and ethnic gaps. Future of Children, 15, 5-13. Schweinhart, L. J. (2003, April). Benefits, Costs, and Explanation of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Tampa, FL. Wells, A. S. , Crain, R. L. (1997). Stepping over the color line: African- American students in White suburban schools. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Yoshikawa, H. (1995). Long-term effects of early childhood programs on social outcomes and delinquency. Future of Children, 5(3), 51-75.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Book Review Why We Dont Listen Essay Example for Free

Book Review Why We Dont Listen Essay James C. Peterson, author of Why Dont We Listen Better? Communicating Connecting in Relationships, through trial and error learned the value of communication balancing in which he found that the counselor must listen awhile, talk until the other person stops hearing and then listen until the person calms enough to hear again. (Peterson, 2007 Pg. 5) This concept is enlarged into a process in which Peterson calls the flat-brain syndrome. The purpose of the writing of this book according to Peterson was to assist couples in gaining the communication skills needed to improve their relationship. In this book Peterson says to make personal connection with people communication skills need to involve the stomach, which puts our feelings into words, the heart which makes clear that we are putting our own feelings into words and the head which puts our thoughts into words. (Peterson, 2007 Pg. 16) Peterson says that he uses the flat-brain syndrome to understand the problem of failed communication. Peterson explains â€Å"communication is the lubrication designed to keep our functions of stomach, heart, and head working separately and together† (Peterson 2007, Pg. 6). The gifted Peterson also takes the concept of the flat brain syndrome a step further by relating to the reader what happens when our systems (stomach, heart and head) get out of whack. (Peterson 2007, Pg. 23) In this scenario Peterson uses these parts to show what happens to communication, for example stomach overloads, hearts might turn bricklike, brains can go flat, and hearing is altered. These things of course alter the way we hear and feel. These things then set us up to fall into the flat-brain syndrome. Peterson 2007 35-48) In part two Peterson explains the â€Å"talker-listener† process or what he refers to as TLC which exhibits his feelings about the whole counseling process. Part three explains the techniques Peterson uses in listening and the traps one can fall into in the process. The process used by Peterson in this book relates things that he has tested and that work for the counselor. In closing Peterson makes clear that to â€Å"put wheels on your technique,† the counselor must exhibit warmth, genuineness and empathy. Why Dont We Listen Better?  Communicating Connecting in Relationships is a book written from the human counselor perspective. Peterson uses examples of everyday objects to relate positive plans for the counselor to put into action to achieve really positive results. Where many writers fail at connecting with their readers, Peterson brings a high level of understanding and process explanation simply by being down to earth in his communication. The whole goal of the book seemed to be to make a progressive and positive change in the process the non-professional counselor could use to aid and assist his counselee. From reading the title of the book one might think that listening is the key to the whole process but Peterson adds to the process by incorporating the qualities that pastor counselors should strive to achieve. Those qualities are caring for the counselee, genuine concern for them and the desire to point them at the real counselor. Reflection In reflecting upon the teachings of Dr. Peterson in Why Dont We Listen Better? Communicating Connecting in Relationships, I am reminded of a conversation I had with my middle son and his wife just recently. In particular this book has taught me that I need to listen better and that my boys and their wives are not children anymore. I serve as a missionary to the Navajo in Thoreau, NM. The area is desolate, dry, high and poor. My wife and I had provided a house for our son and daughter-in-law on the property of the church but the time came when they decided they needed to be in a big town where they could both work and do the things young people do. For my wife and I it was a terrible time. We love our kids and we have always been very close. My son tried to explain to me that he needed to find a good job and there were none in Thoreau and that they wanted to be independent. As I look back I realize how bad I was at listening to people that I love. I said it will cost you more than here and I am not going to support you so you can live in Albuquerque. As I think back I realize that I should have listened much better. All the things I told him came true and they came to me for help over and over. Some would say â€Å"well then why do you think that the listening thing was so important? The answer is a beautiful one†¦just the other day I offered to help him work on his car and he said to me â€Å"That’s O. K. dad I have saved up the money to get a mechanic. † Small thing to others I would say but to me he was showing me that he really had grown up. Investigation I must say that I enjoyed reading Why Dont We Listen Better? Communicating Connecting in Relationships. The book helped me to look at several realities about my life as well as my feelings compared to my reactions. I learned that the best way to have a positive relationship is to communicate. For many years the most important thing I feel that I have learned is the art of communication. Peterson has written theories that are effective and have been proven over time. Peterson has given himself to the problem of effective communication, to assisting others and to repairing and building relationships. The book was so easy to understand that I felt like I knew a lot about what Peterson was saying but I learned lots of new things as well. The talker-listener card strategy and the flat-brain theory are things that I will use in the future. It has been hard for me to listen attentively when the communication involves my kids especially when emotions are high but according to the flat-brain theory this is an area that I can work to improve upon. Peterson gives an excellent explanation about how the talker-listener card can work for me and my sons when issues like the one described above come about. Peterson has developed his processes from experiences he has had as a pastoral counselor. Why Dont We Listen Better? Communicating Connecting in Relationships has taught me to be a better listener and how to speak only when the counselee is actively listening to me. This is really a great book for those that want to learn to communicate with others better and to connect with the other party. Application As mentioned before I found this book to be very useful not only in my relationships with my family but also in dealing with the Navajo people in general. One of the things peculiar to many of the Navajo people is that they have specific ways of saying things that to the novice might not mean a whole lot but the talker-listener card methodology will help me in reaching out for their inner feelings, thoughts and desires. After reading this book I find many things that I can do to improve myself. When combined with the 7 Spiritual Gifts with 4 (DISC) Personality Types I have discovered some important information that will help me in my ministry. For example the spiritual gifts and behavioral blends specific to me are that my Primary Spiritual Gifts are Encouraging/Exhorting (58/60), Mercy (58/60) and Serving/Ministry/Helps (57/60). My behavioral blends say that what is expected of me is S/D but I am really C/S. My primary spiritual gifts were found to be: Encouraging / Exhorting, Mercy and Serving / Ministry / Helps. I plan to take the profile to heart mainly because some of the people that know me best have said that the profile was me exactly and I agree. I plan to use the suggested scripture to help me work on my weaknesses and to improve on my strengths. I have made a promise to myself and will ask God to help me to listen to what others have to say. I will incorporate a check system to improve my listening technique. I will actively try to listen to the problems of those seeking my advice. I will also attempt to share my thoughts and feelings without labeling, accusing or judging.

The Reasons Behind The Largest Corporate Scandal Of India Accounting Essay

The Reasons Behind The Largest Corporate Scandal Of India Accounting Essay Satyam means Truth and the truth was revealed very late in case of Indias one of the largest IT company, Satyam Computers Services Limited. By the time, Satyam fraud came to public light, Ramalinga Raju, the chairman of the company, had already committed Indias largest corporate fraud ever. The first section of essay will discuss the reasons behind the largest corporate scandal of India. It will discuss why people with billions in banks go corrupt. In this section, it will argue on the negligence and violation of duty by various elements involved in the wrongdoing. Then, the next section of essay will state some recommendations to avoid further frauds or scams. In the first section, we will discuss why big businessmen or rich people who are very famous and known to the world, sometimes, step out of line of honesty. By doing this, they break the trust of people and lose all their repute and name that they had gained by working hard in their lives. The first reason for their divergence from honesty to dishonesty is sense of ownership. If a person is the only owner or founder of the company, then he finds it easy to do what he wants with his business. He thinks that it is his business and money. Security of getting away with any wrongdoing makes him comfortable. He becomes unaware of the consequences and keeps on doing wrong things again and again. The owners and founders of companies, sometimes, dont like outer interference in their business and they do only what, they think is best in their interest. Hence, this sense of ownership, somehow, leads to greed. They dont think of other people who put their money in business. They justify themselves that they are permitted to do what they want with that money because it is their business. They just ignore the rights of other stakeholders who are involved in business too (Kaur and Mishra, 2010). Hence their unethical behaviour cost them a lot at the end because one day everybody comes to know about crime. In Satyam case, ownership structure of Indian companies is also responsible to some extent. The popularity of family owned businesses in India led to concentrated business control. In this system, independent directors agree to act in interest of family group. They just ignore the interests of the company and minority shareholders and act in the way that is best for their benefit. Some corporations are generally structured in a pyramid structure. The pyramid structure comprises of some separate business lines. Different businesses are considered as one entity and are controlled by one group at the top. Thus, they can transfer money from one entity to another as required (Winkler, 2010). Hence, it can lead to tunneling. Tunneling is a process in which a control group moves money from one company to another company, where they possess bigger share. Also, in pyramid structure, it is hard for outside shareholders to check inner performance of business entities (Winkler, 2010). Because of pyramid structure and consolidated control of the business, board of directors of Satyam didnt do their duty independently. They approved the purchase of family owned company of Chairman Mr. Raju, Maytas properties and Maytas Infrastructure. It was not an IT company and Mr. Raju had larger shares in Maytas than in Satyam. Thus, ownership structure of business impacted the performance of directors in another way (Winkler, 2010). Another reason for the professional misconduct of billionaire businessmen is the desire to do something different. Sometimes they think that they have achieved everything in their life, so what is next exciting job for them. Thus, the thrill of danger involved gives them the drive to do something unusual. So, they tend to try new things in their jobs to gain more advantage out of their business. Thus, gradually, this tendency leads to their deviation from right to wrong and they cant step back because they merge themselves in the offence to that extent that they fear to get exposed to the public. So they keep on doing that without expecting to get caught one day. Sometimes, people start their offence with small misconduct. To get benefit, they just try a mischief by manipulating the account books by little difference. They think that is very easy as they didnt get caught. So, next year they again do that to cover last years gap. Then, they feel uneasy to stop that as they dont know how to get out of this. Hence, they commit that mistake again and again until that mistake gets transformed to a blunder and then to a largest fraud. In case of Satyam, Ramalinga Raju had to overstate the income every quarter to cover the last gaps. When he finally disclosed the fraud, he mentioned, It was like riding a tiger, not knowing how to get off without being eaten (Winkler, 2010 pg 5). Thus, a small mistake led him to the edge, where he didnt know how to get back and he became convicted of the scam of billions. In a competitive corporate world, billionaires become prone to be more successful than their rivals. They become habitual of winning. So, when they perceive that next situation is not going to be in their favour, it hurts their sense of pride. Thus, they become ready to do anything to maintain their status and repute. They just forget that by choosing wrong way to success, their pride will sustain for short term. For the long term, they will have to pay for every wrong deed. Thus, all the above mentioned reasons together give an example of weak corporate governance of India. Personal greed of the chairman and negligence of duty by board of directors and the audit committee resulted in a worst scandal in Indian history. Now, the second section of essay will provide some implications to prevent these types of corporate frauds in future. After Satyam scandal, Indian regulators started working for the improvement in corporate governance of India. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is a main regulatory authority for Indias stock market (Afsharipour, 2009). It proposed some regulations that should be strictly followed by all companies to maintain good governance standards. But, still it is difficult for the corporate government of India to make changes in their standards in short period of time to prevent further frauds. Still, it can be achieved by facilitating strict enforcement of their rules. First of all, government should take initiative by being strict in its laws and regulations. Government can initiate this from the roots of crime, that is, bribery. They should punish the bribe givers and bribe takers. The persons, who give or take bribe for their own interests and grab the rights of other people involved in the business, deserve punishment. It will help to prevent further corruption as people will avoid it for the fear of strict punishment. If still any person is involved in any kind of fraud or scam, they should be sent to prison and their assets should be seized. They should make suffer hard so that in future nobody will feel secure or easy to get away with a crime. Also, there are some duties of companies towards their employees. Employees should be encouraged to whistle blowing. Whistleblowing helps to avoid and eliminate evil and to decrease the probability of misconduct and dishonesty in an organisation (Grace Cohen 2010). All the employees should be aware of the means that how can they disclose unethical behaviour of board member or any other person in the company without getting affected. This would create a strict and honest environment in the companies as everybody will be afraid of getting caught if they would chose to be corrupt. Also, to make this step successful, whistle blowers should firstly, provide full protection. That will encourage them to follow the moral behaviour and stand against evil. This practice will play an important role in the prevention of corruption and frauds. Moreover, to get best out of their workforce companies can encourage employees to buy some shares from the company. If employees have some shares in the c ompany, they are working; they will work for the best interest of the company. They will not favour any bribery and stand against evil in firm. Hence, it will lead to best corporate results. To avoid unethical behaviours in companies, business should be run on the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility. Under this concept, businesses become committed to behave ethically. In the companies, duties are performed morally towards contribution to economic development, while considering the interests of employees, all stakeholders and society as a whole (Ferrar, 2008). CSR works in long term interest of the company and it also increases companys reputation. Hence, a company working on the concept of CSR will have good quality workforce who will focus on the interests of all the people attached to the business. In corporations, there are two audit committees. First is internal audit committee that is comprised of independent directors of the company. They scan all the operations in the firm including income statements. They make sure that no unreliable and false information regarding financial report would be given to the shareholders (Solomon, 2007). They are responsible for the internal audit system. Hence they ensure the accuracy of all the operations inside the firm. External auditors are the auditors from outside the company. They review the performance of internal auditors, that is, they check internal audit functions. They scan companys whole financial reporting process (Afsharipour, 2009). In India, there is need for more clear functions of audit committees. There is need for more independence and better composition of internal auditors. More frequent meetings of audit committees should be encouraged. It will help in more effective internal control. Also, more meetings will help in effective judgement and decision making (Al-Mudhaki and Joshi, 2004). Moreover, an audit committee should not work with a company for more than five years. They should be changed after every five years, otherwise, they will get lazy working with same company and they might get involved with some people of company. That can affect their performance as auditors because their job needs total unbiasedness. Final check of the financial reports should be done by anonymous external auditors so that directors will not find any opportunity to bribe them. Hence, effective role of auditors is very necessary to avoid corporate failures. In India, corporate governance has been put into practice through clauses of Companies act 1956 (Farias, 2001). Companies Act in India has been drawn a lot from UK Companies Act 1948 (Afsharipour, 2009). But, still Indian Companies Act doesnt put more stress on the independence and qualification of board of directors and investor protection. In India, lack of independent and qualified directors leads to weak corporate governance. Most independent directors are the university professors or government officials. They show least interest in their duties and monitoring the performance of management. According to Zhang and Rajagopalan (2008), to ensure unbiasedness and quality of boardroom, foreign directors can be appointed. Also, India can open its market for foreign investors. Hence, independence of directors will ensure right and unbiased decision making and avoidance of any influence from anybody. India corporate governance needs to put great emphasis on transparency and disclosure. Transparency and disclosure are very necessary to eliminate corruption and to ensure precision of all the operations performed in a business (Zhang and Rajagopalan (2008). Corporations should not hide anything from the public. They should be transparent and clear in their operations and disclose their annual agendas every year. They should state clearly in the beginning of financial year what they are going to do and how they are going to use the shareholders money. Companies should work in favour of more voluntary disclosure. They should disclose their balance sheet position more than once a year, perhaps twice. This will help to avoid mismanagement of account books. If there would any falsification in the statements of balance sheet then it will be prevented on time. Hence, transparency and disclosure in business adds up to the value and quality of operations in the business. Companies will be mo re honest and true in their approaches leading to achievement of good corporate governance standards. Reaction of American government to Enron scandal resulted in Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOA) in 1992 which holds lots of reforms in corporate governance in America. SOA put great emphasis on certification system in corporations. According to this act, each quarterly and annual report must be certified by CEO and CFO of the company (Pinto Branson, 2009). They should review the financial reports themselves and should take responsibility. This law has been adopted by Indian Companies Act in Clause 49 but it doesnt put criminal liability in case of fake or wrong statement (Afsharipour, 2009). So, absence of criminal liability means there will not be any fear of law in people and they can easily alter the financial statements. There is no benefit in implementing a regulation with no strict criminal law on the violation of that regulation. Hence, if any law is implemented by the regulators, it should be strengthened with penalties, in case if somebody dares to break those laws. It will help to i nstall fear of law in minds of people so that they wont even think to go against laws in a corporation. Failure of Indian Judicial System to settle corporate conflicts is another reason for weak corporate governance in India (Afsharipour, 2009). Delays in making decisions in judiciary process often led to ignorance of issues. Hence, judiciary processes in India are strongly criticised because of their negligence of judicial system. Thus, more steps should be taken towards the reforms in Judiciary System. This will help in timely resolving of corporate disputes and ensure the effective corporate governance standards. Ministry of Company Affairs (MCA) is government regulatory body and Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is independent securities regulator. Since creation of SEBI in 1992, there have been continuous conflicts between SEBI and MCA. (Afsharipour,2009). Simultaneous exercise of all legislative responsibilities by both regulatory bodies is increasing tension between SEBI and MCA. This conflict and competition between two groups is putting hindrance on the way of corporate governance reforms. SEBI adopted most of the legislative regulations but implemented few of them. Both of the groups have least focus on corporate governance regulations and more focus on undermining each other. So, authorisation of SEBI and MCA on the regulations in the companies should be managed effectively so as to resolve conflict between both groups. Both of the groups should work in harmony for the strict implementation of all the regulations and thus, it will further help to achieve better standards for t he corporate governance. Apart from these reforms, one thing that builds the foundation of the corporate governance is the ethics of people. So, it should be reformed from the roots. That is, students should be taught ethics in schools (Kaur and Mishra, 2010). Especially in a country like India, there is need for the honest and ethical people. Introduction of ethical education in schools would strengthen the roots of corporate governance. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to take revolutionary steps for the governance reforms to prevent corporate failures due to scandals. Hence, as no business can operate in a vacuum, directors have some fiduciary responsibilities towards stakeholders. If directors step out of line of honesty, they should be punished. The first part of essay identified some reasons for convergence in behaviour of billionaires that leads to large corporate frauds. The second part of essay provided some recommendations for corporate governance reforms which would help to prevent frauds in companies. After analysing all the points, this essay puts great emphasis on the implementation of strict laws against corruption. This would mark the prevention of debacles like Satyam for a longer time in the future. Word count: 2650

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Truth Essay -- English Literature Essays

Truth The question of right and wrong has been battled over for centuries. Many conservatives still believe that truth is absolute, while others disagree, saying that truth is relative. I believe that truth is an individual’s perception of beliefs and decisions. For that reason, truth differentiates among individuals thorough their contrasting opinions. But, truth is something that everyone believes to be correct. Thus, it greatly depends on what’s true in the minds of the people. On the contrary, truth that’s spoken with bad intent is considered to be worse than a lie. Hence, truth is an expression, symbol or statement that corresponds to reality and happiness. Truth is dominated by one’s subjective thoughts and beliefs. It is a concept that’s created by man, and therefore can never have any absolutes. And if a concept such as the truth has no absolutes, it becomes subjective based upon your perceptions of it. However, an individual’s experiences, thoughts and beliefs shape their perception of truth. Truth is timeless, abstract and unchanging ideals based on the individual. All truth is subjected to an individual’s opinion. It is based on person’s perspective on society and developed by their past experiences. Similarly, subjective truth deals with what is in the persons' mind. Also could mean the opinion of a person of certain objects. A subjective truth is an idea which may be important to me but not to you. For example, I decide that killing, under any circums...

Monday, August 19, 2019

Lucid Dreaming Essays -- Reserach Dreaming Dreams Essays

Lucid Dreaming Austin based filmmaker Richard Linklater recently released a movie that is a dream. By that I mean both that it is about a dream, and that it is dreamlike. "Waking Life" received mixed reviews, but it also sparked new interest in an idea that has actually been around a long time: lucid dreaming. In this paper I intend to explore the concept of lucidity in dreams, and to concentrate on the research of Stanford University's Stephen LaBerge, who has used lucid dreaming as a tool to better understand the biological phenomena of sleep and dreams. Basically, "lucid dreaming" is being aware that you are dreaming(1). In the late 19th century, Frederik van Eeden published his observations about his own lucid dreams. He reported the sensation of "being able to freely remember the circumstances of waking life, to think clearly, and to act deliberately upon reflection, all while experiencing a dream world that seems vividly real(2) (3)." Lucid dreams are not reported often, although a 1988 study by Snyder and Gackenbach indicated that as many as 58 % of people report having had at least one lucid dream in their life time, with 21 % having them as regularly as once a month(2). LaBerge was the among first scientists to provide scientific evidence supporting the phenomena in the early 1980s(4). His research has shown several techniques to be successful tools to help an individual learn how to become lucid in a dream. Lucid Dreaming: Fact or Fiction? Scientific debate regarding the validity of lucid dreams has existed for some time. Some believed that so-called lucid dreams were not dreams at all, but brief arousals from the sleeping state analogous to day dreaming. As recently as 1985 David Foulkes ... ...ry, dream lucidity appears to be a valid phenomena and one many people hope to achieve for themselves. Whatever your interest in the topic, you are sure to find an outlet for it in the plethora of internet resources available on the topic. Internet Sources: 1)Lucidity For All 2)The Lucidity Institute Site: "Lucid Dreaming: Psychophysiological Studies of Consciousness during REM Sleep, by Stephen LaBerge, Ph. D. 3) The Lucidity Institute: "A Study of Dreams" , by Frederik van Eeden 4) "Waking the Dreamer", 5) "Dreaming: Lucid and Non Lucid" , by David Foulkes 6) The Lucid Dreaming Guild

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Sartre and the Rationalization of Human Sexuality Essay -- Philosophy

Sartre and the Rationalization of Human Sexuality ABSTRACT: Sartre rationalizes sexuality much like Plato. Rationalization here refers to the way Sartre tries to facilitate explanation by changing the terms of the discussion from sexual to nonsexual concepts. As a philosophy which, above all, highlights those features of human existence which seem most resistant to explanation, one would expect existentialism to highlight sexuality as a category that is crucial for considering human existence. Descartes comes immediately to mind when one focuses on Sartre's major categories. In Sartre's case however, it is not mind and matter but consciousness and its opposite: "nothingness" and "being." This irreducible dualism is the key to the trouble human beings have with existence. Humans try to deal with the tensions implied by this dualism by trying to pretend people are not subjects but objects. Sartre calls this "bad faith." He begins by attempting to take human sexuality seriously as a fundamental category, but ends by abandoning the effo rt in favor of other substitutes. Akin to Plato in his rationalization of sexuality is Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre is probably the end of existentialist philosophy in two senses: in the first place in the sense of extending existentialist premises as far as they can be taken, and in the second place in the sense of serving as the canonical example of existentialist thought. Since existentialism is the philosophy above all other philosophies which takes seriously the concrete existence of a human in all of its facticity, anxiety, temporality, and fleshliness, and will place this existence before all decisions about essence, it would seem that above all others we can expect from Sartre a philosop... ...y important in sexuality. This is "bad faith" in reverse, the treating of objectivities as though subjective. On the other hand, the For-itself is too much bound or confined to abstract categories. Is sexuality really a dialectic of subject and object? It is this, but is it only this? These broad categories cover all cosmic relationships. Sex disappears into an abstraction. Wherein lies the distinguishing difference of sexuality and what difference does this make? These considerations are nowhere in Sartre. This is Sartre's sexuality, a bloodless and a passionless dance of the categories. Notes (1) Translated and with an introduction by Hazel E. Barnes and published by Philosophical Library, New York, 1956. Page numbers placed in parentheses in the text refer to this edition. (2) Sartre illustrates "bad faith" with a sexual illustration. See pages 55-56.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Legal, Safety, Regulatory Essay

Human resources must abide by legal regulations and safety laws, along with regulations requirements. This is set in place for organizations to avoid litigation. The employee-related regulations have been established by the United States including; Department of Labor, the U. S Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and the Department of Homeland Security. The main focus of these regulations is to prevent any manager from acting biased or irrationally. As a result, common sense and compassion have been replaced by litigation. What managers and employees fear the most is being sued. Managers will make special efforts to prevent such situations from occurring. Some managers will neglect high stress levels of their employees and lack the proper attention to legitimately discontented and unhappy employees. This throws common sense and compassion out the door. Compassion is the workplace amplifies the morale and enthusiasm of the employees along with cooperation where people are actually open to help and not move quickly into suing and organization. Experiencing compassion at work generates positive emotion and, in turn, shapes employees’ long-term attitudes and behaviors. Positive emotions generated by compassion have a cascading effect on employees’ attitudes and behaviors, thereby increasing job satisfaction and lowering job stress, (University of Michigan: Newsroom, 2003). The most recent of the major Equal Employment Opportunity laws is The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 also known as ADA. The law forbidding employment discrimination against people with disabilities who are able to perform the essential functions of the job with or without reasonable accommodation (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2010). This act also provides the definition of what a person with disability truly entails. Managers must be especially careful when it comes to this because these days employees will knit pick and strip down a situation and call it discrimination when without a doubt they were probably not fulfilling the job description. HR managers need to ensure the safety of their employees. To ensure such safety there are two important standard regulations; that is workman’s compensation laws, each slightly differing upon which state the employee is in, and OSHA, the Occupational Safety and Health Act established since 1970 on the federal level . Workman’s comp is a legally required benefit that provides medical care, income continuation, and rehabilitation expenses for people who sustain job-related injuries or sickness. Also provides income to the survivors of an employee whose death is job related (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2010). That being the case, there are audits held to prevent employee’s from filing fraudulent workman’s comp claims. OSHA has set federal and states laws, employees are to abide by their states OSHA standards to ensure safety in the workplace (Dellpo, 2013). In violation to following such laws can result in employer fines. With compassion and common sense lacking in the workplace a real disgruntled employee could cost and employer tons of money by carelessly contributing to fines. Then when presented with such allegations will then claim discrimination. When dealing with laws that effect HR, these are brought to the EEOC, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Employment decisions should not be based on characteristics such as race, sex, age, or disability (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2010). The EEOC are the ones who investigate claims and situations involving harassment, discrimination, ect. And do take everything seriously. Employers these days definitely abuse the EEOC for simple situations that common sense can be easily applied to, and under those circumstances wasting a lot of time and money for an organization. In the end, after exanimating the effect of legal safety and regulatory requirements on human resource process the main focus of these regulations is to prevent any manager from biasedly and without cause irrationally treating an employee badly. As a result, common sense and compassion have been replaced by litigation. It is unfortunate, but as managers that is why it is important to take actions that develop trust, such as sharing useful information and making good on commitments. Act consistently so that employees are not surprised by unexpected management actions or decisions. Be truthful and avoid white lies and actions designed to manipulate others by giving a certain (false) impression. Demonstrate integrity by keeping confidences and showing concern for others. Meet with employees to discuss and define what is expected of them. Ensure that employees are treated equitably, giving equivalent rewards for similar performance and avoiding actual or apparent special treatment of favorites. Adhere to clear standards that are seen as just and reasonable, for example, neither praising accomplishments nor imposing penalties disproportionately. Demonstrate respect toward employees, showing openly that they care about employees and recognize their strengths and contributions (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2010). By practicing these key points compassion and common sense can be restored in the workplace.

Friday, August 16, 2019

How We Listen By Aaron Copland

In his essay How We Listen, Aaron Copland classifies and divides the listening process into three parts: the sensuous place, the expressive plane, and the sheerly musical plane (1074). I believe by this mechanical separation, Copland succeeds in discussing difficult topic, so natural that most people tend to by pass it. He uses analogy and sometimes stresses on certain situation where these planes are abused or become a cause of a problem. The main purpose for Copland to separate the listening process is for the reader to learn and study how they listen. Coplands success in the clarification mainly because of two methods: (1) Categorizing the listening process in different parts and use an analogy to unite it to bring back the general idea of the listening process and (2) by answering and addressing to problems so the readers will understand and have a different view of the text. Categorizing the listening process People listen on the sensuous plane for pure entertainment. For example, turning one the radio while doing something else and absentmindedly bathes in the sound (1074). Copland continues talking about the sound stuff (1075) and how composers manipulate it differently. Good listener should realize that lovely sounding music is not necessarily great music. I believe putting the sensuous plane before the other two is a good technique, since this is the plane most people often relates to. Second plane is the expressive one. Copland now discusses the notion of meaning in music. In his view, music has a meaning but this meaning is not concrete and sometimes it cannot be expressed in words. This plane explains why we get moved or relaxed by music. It is more difficult to grasp and required more deep thought because Copland claims that meaning in music should be no more than a general concept (1076). This issue is very philosophical and one must accept the train to understand this plane. The next plane deals with the manipulation of the notes and offers a more intellectual approach in enhancing musical appreciation. The actual structure of the music as such the length of the note, pitch, harmony, and tone color are emphasized in this section of the essay. This basic study of the structure is a must to form a firm foundation in the musical piece and to understand the diagnosis of it. This technical and more scientific plane is contradictory to the philosophical sensuous plane. Therefore, it is another good technique of Copland to write one right after the other to cover the whole listening process. after expounding his theory on the way we listen, Copland uses the analogy of a theoretical play to drive the point home. This is yet another good technique used by Copland: allowing him to clearly demonstrate the interrelating of the three planes. Regarding the ideal listener, Copland says: In a sense, the ideal listener is both inside and outside the music at the same moment, judging it and enjoying it, wishing it would go one way and watching it go anotheralmost like the composer at the moment he composes it; because in order to write his music, the composer must also be inside and outside his music, carried away but it and yet coldly critical of it. (1078) It is obvious that in Coplands view the best approach consists of the balanced mixture of all three planes. Answering and addressing to problems Copland uses the three planes of the listening process to mark the division of his essay. For great clarity, the text is very clearly organized. He starts with the introduction and tackles the sensuous plane in the second paragraph. Many people may wonder what kind of a problem lies in a purely entertainment plane. He claims that the sensuous plane is abused by people who listens to music to escape reality, yet still addresses themselves as a good music lovers. Copland warns: Yes, the sound appeal of music is a potent and primitive force, but you must not allow it to usurp a disproportionate share of your interest. The sensuous plane is an important one in music, a very important one, but it does not constitute the whole story. The understanding of sensuous plane and the actualization that there are more planes in the listening process is stressed. Copland then continues with the expressive plane, objecting to the notion of simple-minded people that music should have concrete meaning. He argues that meaning cannot be explained by words and that people should simply be satisfied with a general concept: feel the music. Moving to the third plane -the sheerly musical one- Copland talks about music in terms of notes. This plane concerns musicians and audience alike. What may go wrong with the makers of music themselves According to Copland, professional musicians are sometimes too conscious of the notes: They [professional musicians] often fall into the error of becoming so engrossed with their arpeggios and staccatos that they forget the deeper aspects of the music they are performing. (1077) From this statement, I believe that theres a fear of losing the expressive plane, if this problem triggers. On the other hand, we have the general audience. Listeners often neglect them. He argues that a good listener should know the musical structure in order to enhance the enjoyment of music on this plane.

Physiological Adaption Fish Essay

Adaptation of Fish to Its Environment BIO101 March 11,2013 Physiological Adaptation of Fish to Its Environment All organisms around the world are sparsely distributed depending on the environment that best suited to their modes of survival. Organisms undergo adaptation – an evolutionary process where they became well-suited to a particular. The process of adaptation happens through the natural selection, whereby nature selects those organisms that suit a certain habitat and sustain them for successive generation and ones that do not perish, hence the theme of survival for the fittest. The surviving species pass the same favorable features to their generation for their further survival after a progressive reproduction. Physiological adaptation of fish to their habitat depends on what the nature favors to suit them. Below is the illustration of the external and internal features of a fish (â€Å"Internal Salmon Anatomy Worksheet Key,† 2011): Water bodies have a diversity of conditions that enable fishes to adapt to their survival. The physiological adaptation of these animals varies to a particular habitat, and it relates to how their metabolism works to counter the changing environment. Fish metabolic activities seek to regulate their body functions in any opportune change of their environment and adapt to it. To control the body temperature, fishes undergo physiological thermoregulation. The physiological and metabolic activities regulate the body temperature and maintain it by means of countercurrent exchange system. The countercurrent exchange system is one where the hot blood in the blood vessels, as a result of muscular activities, passes along and gives up some heat to the blood in the adjacent blood vessels, which is flowing to the other parts of the body. This way fishes are able to keep warm. Fish also have the survival tactics in areas where water temperatures are on the point of freezing all the year round – like in the Antarctica region. In order to overcome the darkness due to the ice over the water surface, fish have a specialized sensory system called mechanosensory lateral line, which enables them to sense the motion of other animal in their environment and allows them to feed. However, some fish subspecies normally live in the freshwater and in seawater depending on the environmental opportunities that affects their chances to survive (WhyEvolutionIsTrue, 2012). Freshwater fish have a mechanism, which makes possible them to concentrate salt within their bodies in the environment of salt deficiency; consequently, marine fish have the capability to excrete excess salt in the hypertonic environment. The latter as well has chloride cell in their gills, which produce enzyme called gill Na+/K+ATPase that enables them to ride their plasma of excess salt build up when they drink seawater. The enzyme is applied to pump sodium out of their gills using the energy generated from the muscle. Freshwater fish have a physiological mechanism that allows them to concentrate salt and compensate their sanity environment. They achieve the balance of the body and that of the surrounding by producing very dilute, copious urine to rid them of the excess water in their body while taking ions through their gills (â€Å"Fish in Their Environments: Habitats & Adaptation,† 2010). Their adaptation favors their capability to adjust to the changing environment. The swordfish has a modified eye muscle with a concentration of mitochondrion cells. The mitochondrion organelles perform the duty of breaking down of food to obtain energy for normal eye movement and to provide heat for blood going to the brain. The physiological system of fish also operates within a fluid environment despite the change its environment. Osmoregulation in fish aims to get a stable balance of uptake and loss of water and solutes through their excretory organs. Marine fish, for example, bony fishes, are hypo-osmotic to seawater; respond to loosing water in their bodies by osmosis and gain salt by diffusion and from the food they eat. They also take up chloride ions through their skin and gills to balance osmotic condition of their environment. In conclusion, fish, like all other animals, have their mode of adaptation to survive in their habitat regarding the circumstances that occur. They will continue to reproduce passing those adaptations to their next generation. References Internal salmon anatomy worksheet key. (2011, January 14). U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Retrieved from http://www. fws. ov/r5crc/salmon/workbook/homework_salmon_anatomy_internal_key. htm Fish in their environments: Habitats & adaptation. (2010, March 3). Earthguide. Retrieved from http://earthguide. ucsd. edu/fishes/environment/environment_zones. html WhyEvolutionIsTrue. (2012, April 11). Parallel adaptation in fish: Same genes used over and over. Why Evolution Is True. Retrieved from http://whyevolutionistrue. wordpress. com/2012/04/11/parallel-adaptation-in-fish-same-genes-used-over-and-over/

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Consider the importance of Curley’s Wife Essay

   She seems to believe that the man sent her a letter, and that her mother ripped it up, so she left home and, out of spite, married Curley. Even thought she never received the letter, she still clings on to the tiny bit of hope that one day she will be in the movies. Unfortunately, she dies before she has the chance to fulfill her dream, just as Lennie does. This represents and shows the reader how lives never go to plan. Their dreams are wishes for untarnished happiness and the freedom to fulfill their dreams is non-existant. As well as being important in the story, she also has some distinct unimportance. In the novel, she is never given her own name; she has the title of Curleys Wife and is looked upon as his property. It is as if she has no human rights. Whilst everyone else on the ranch has a name, including Crooks the stable buck, she is just defined as the wife of a man she hates. She tells Lennie that, â€Å"he ain’t a nice fella. † She doesn’t like being locked up in the house, and ends up having to sneak around so Curley doesn’t catch her. She also seems insignificant in comparison to the other characters, as she has no specific job on the ranch. She seems to have a lot of time on her hands, because she is heavily made up, and her hair seems to be perfect each time she appears. She fills her time in this way. She also wanders the ranch constantly claiming that she’s â€Å"looking for Curley. † This is because otherwise she is always in the house or hiding from Curley. For example, in Chapter One, when Lennie and George have first arrived, she is stood at the doorway asking for Curley, and after she has left, Curley arrives and asks if anyone has seen his wife. This proves that she is always hiding from Curley, and he is always keeping a watchful eye on her. When she dies, and is lying in the hay, Curleys intentions seem to be just to get revenge, nobody mourns her death. Only Slim has the decency to â€Å"touch her cheek,† and check her pulse under her â€Å"slightly twisted neck. † Curley jumps up and immediately says, â€Å"I know who done it. † His only thought is to kill Lennie. Ever since Lennie crushed Curleys hand he’s been planning revenge, and now he has the perfect reason. Nobody stops to mourn a young, unfortunate, nai ve girl’s death. Even though she has been at the ranch for only two weeks, she seems to already have gathered a reputation of a tart. George generally seems to regard all women as â€Å"jailbait† but knows that there’s â€Å"gonna be a mess ’bout her. † Of course, he is right. The other men on the ranch also think she’s a tart, and Whit thinks that Curleys wife has â€Å"got the eye goin’ all the time,† and Candy also says that â€Å"She got the eye. † Neither of these comments are factual, but they give you a bad impression of Curleys wife. When Curleys Wife first appears, her â€Å"hair is in curls†, she has â€Å"rouged lips†, and is wearing â€Å"red fluffy mules. † She is wearing a lot of red and this usually represents prostitution. When she has left after flaunting her body, George remarks, â€Å"Jesus! What a tramp! † Whit also says â€Å"she ain’t concealing nothing. † She could be more modest but she just wants male attention and the only way she can do this is by showing off her body. Although the main impression of Curleys Wife is that of a tart, there are many qualities that make you feel pity for her. She isn’t bright, and has an isolated life in her house, trying to hide from Curley. She says, â€Å"I don’ like Curley,† and clearly regrets marrying him. When describing her dream, she uses â€Å"I coulda,† and not â€Å"I will. † The girl has no hope and believes her life will be living on the ranch, doing nothing but hiding from Curley. She is also very nai ve, in the last Chapter, when Lennie kills her, she is led in the hay and is described as â€Å"pretty†, â€Å"sweet†, and â€Å"young†. All of these characteristics are those of an innocent girl, the young woman Curleys Wife really was. Curley only wants revenge for her death, Slim is the only person who checks her pulse, and even tells Curley to stay behind, but revenge is all Curley wants. Even Candy curses over her dead body, he says, â€Å"you god-damn tramp† and claims that she ruined his dream of owning the ranch with George and Lennie. Candy blames Curleys Wife, who was really just a lonely girl, and needed someone to talk too. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE John Steinbeck section.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Night World : Witchlight Chapter 4

Winnie's jaw dropped. â€Å"You-you-keep away from me!† Iliana said, and then she got another breath and started shrieking again. She had good lungs, Keller thought The shrieks were not only loud, they were piercing and pitched high enough to shatter glass. Keller's sensitive eardrums felt as if somebody were driving ice picks through them. â€Å"All of you!† Iliana said. She was holding out both hands to fend them off. â€Å"Just let me go! I want to go home!† Winnie's face cleared a little. â€Å"Yeah, I'll bet you do. But, you see, that place is dangerous. We're going to take you somewhere safe-â€Å" â€Å"You kidnapped me! Oh, God, I've been kidnapped. My parents aren't rich. What do you want?† Winnie looked at Keller for help. Keller was watching their prize Wild Power grimly. She was getting a bad feeling about this girl. ‘It's nothing like that.† She kept her voice quiet and level, trying to cut through the hysteria. â€Å"You-don't you even talk to me!† Iliana waved a hand at Keller desperately. â€Å"I saw. You changed. You were a monster! There was blood all over- you killed that man.† She buried her face in her hands and began to sob. â€Å"No, she didn't.† Winnie tried to put a hand on the girl's shoulder. â€Å"And anyway, he attacked me first.† â€Å"He did not. He didn't touch you.† The words were muffled and jerky. â€Å"He didn't touch me, no, but-† Winnie broke off, looking puzzled. She tried again. â€Å"Not with his hands, but-â€Å" In the front seat, Nissa shook her head slightly, amused. â€Å"Boss-â€Å" Tm way ahead of you,† Keller said grimly. This was going to be difficult. Iliana didn't even know that the dragon was the bad guy. All she had seen was a boy trying to talk with her, a girl inexplicably flying against a wall, and a panther that attacked unprovoked. Keller's head hurt. â€Å"I want to go home,† Iliana repeated. All at once, with surprising speed, she lunged for the door handle. It took Keller's animal reflexes to block her, and the movement sent another pang through her injured shoulder. Strangely, as it happened, pain seemed to flicker across Galen's face. He reached out and gently pulled Iliana back. â€Å"Please don't,† he said. â€Å"I know this is all really strange, but you've got it backwards. That guy who was talking to you-he was going to kill you. And Keller saved you. Now they want to take you somewhere safe and explain everything.† Diana raised her head and looked at him. She looked for a long time. Finally, she said, still almost whispering, â€Å"You're all right. I can tell.† Can she? Keller wondered. Does she see something in his eyes? Or does she just see that he's a handsome blond guy with long lashes? â€Å"So you'll go with her?† Galen asked. Iliana gulped, sniffed, and finally nodded. â€Å"Only if you go, too. And only for a little while. After that, I want to go home.† Winfrith's face cleared-at least slightly. Keller stopped guarding the door, but she wasn't happy. â€Å"Straight to the safe house, Boss?† Nissa asked, swinging the car back toward the freeway. Keller nodded grimly. She glanced at Galen. â€Å"You win.† She didn't have to say the rest. The girl would only go if he went. Which made him a member of the team. For the present. He smiled, very faintly. There was nothing smug in it, but Keller looked again. Nothing was going the way she'd planned. And Winnie might still have faith in her Witch Child, but Keller's doubts had crystallized. We are all, she thought, in very big trouble. And there was a dragon that might start looking for them at any minute. How fast did dragons recover, anyway? Big trouble, Keller thought. The safe house was a nondescript brick bungalow. Circle Daybreak owned it, and nobody in the Night World knew about it. That was the theory, anyway. The truth was that no place was safe. As soon as they had hidden the limo in an ivy-covered carport in back and Keller had made a phone call to Circle Daybreak headquarters, she told Winnie to set up wards around the house. â€Å"They won't be all that strong,† Winnie said. â€Å"But they'll warn us if something tries to get in.† She bustled around, doing witch things to the doors and windows. Nissa stopped Keller on her own trip of inspection. â€Å"We'd better look at your arm.† â€Å"It's all right.† â€Å"You can barely move it.† Til manage. Go look at Winnie; she hit that wall pretty hard.† â€Å"Winnie's okay; I already checked her. And, Keller, just because you're the team leader doesn't mean you have to be invulnerable. It's all right to accept help sometimes.† â€Å"We don't have time to waste on me!† Keller went back to the living room. She'd left Iliana in the care of Galen. She hadn't actually told him that, but she'd left them alone together, and now she found he'd gotten a root beer from the refrigerator and some tissues from the bathroom. Diana was sitting huddled on the couch, holding the drink and blotting her eyes. She jumped at every noise. â€Å"Okay, now I'm going to try to explain,† Keller said, pulling up an ottoman. Winnie and Nissa quietly took seats behind her. â€Å"I guess the first thing I should tell you about is the Night World. You don't know what that is, do you?† Iliana shook her head. â€Å"Most humans don't. It's an organization, the biggest underground organization in the world. It's made up of vampires and shapeshifters and witches-well, not witches now. Only a few of the darkest witches from Circle Midnight are still part of it. The rest of them have seceded.† â€Å"Vampires†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Iliana whispered. â€Å"like Nissa,† Keller said. Nissa smiled, a rare full smile that showed sharp teeth. â€Å"And Winnie is a witch. And you saw what I am. But we're all part of Circle Daybreak, which is an organization for everybody who wants to try to live together in peace.† â€Å"Most of the Night People hate humans,† Winnie said. â€Å"Their only laws are that you can't tell humans about the Night World and that you can't fall in love with them.† â€Å"But even humans can join Circle Daybreak,† Keller said. â€Å"And that's why you want me?† Iliana looked bewildered. â€Å"Well, not exactly.† Keller ran a hand over her forehead. â€Å"Look, the main thing you need to know about Circle Daybreak is what it's trying to do right now. What it's trying to keep from happening.† Keller paused, but there was no easy way to say it â€Å"The end of the world.† â€Å"The end of the world?† Keller didn't smile, didn't blink, just waited it out while Iliana sputtered, gasped, and looked at Galen for some kind of sanity. When she finally ran down, Keller went on. â€Å"The millennium is coming. When it gets here, a time of darkness is going to begin. The vampires want it to happen; they want the darkness to wipe out the human race. They figure that then they'll be in charge.† â€Å"The end of the world,† Iliana said. â€Å"Yes. I can show you the evidence if you want There are all sorts of things happening right now that prove it The world is falling into disorder, and pretty soon it's going to fall apart. But the reason we need you is because of the prophecies.† â€Å"I want to go home.† I bet you do, Keller thought. For a moment, she felt complete sympathy for the girl. â€Å"Like this.† She quoted: â€Å"Four to stand between the light and the shadow, Four of blue fire, power in their blood. Born in the year of the bund Maiden's vision; Four less one and darkness triumphs.† â€Å"I really don't know what you're talking about-â€Å" â€Å"Four Wild Powers,† Keller went on relentlessly. â€Å"Four people with a special gift, something nobody else has. Each one of them born seventeen years ago.If Circle Daybreak can get all four of them to work together-and only if Circle Daybreak can get them to work together-then we can hold off the darkness.† Iliana was shaking her head, edging away even from Galen. Behind Keller, Winnie and Nissa stood up, closing in. They faced her in a solid block, unified. â€Å"I'm sorry,† Keller said. â€Å"You can't escape it. You're part of it. You're a Wild Power.† â€Å"And you should be happy,† Winnie burst out, unable to contain herself any longer. â€Å"You're going to help save the world. You know that thing I did back in the Hallmark shop? With the orange fire?† She cupped her hands. â€Å"Well, you're full of blue fire. And that's so much stronger-nobody even knows what it can do.† Iliana put out her hands. â€Å"I'm sorry. I really am. But you guys are nuts, and you've got the wrong person. I mean, I don't know, maybe you're not completely nuts. The things that happened back at that store†¦Ã¢â‚¬  She stopped and gulped. â€Å"But I don't have anything to do with it.† She shut her eyes, as if that would bring the real world into focus. â€Å"I'm not any Wild Power,† she said more firmly. â€Å"I'm just a human kid-â€Å" â€Å"Actually, no,† Nissa said. â€Å"You're a lost witch,† Winnie cut in. â€Å"You're a Harmon. A Hearth-Woman. That's the most famous family of witches; they're like-they're royalty. And you're the most famous of all of them. You're the Witch Child. We've been waiting for you.† Keller shifted. â€Å"Winnie, maybe we don't need to tell her all of this right now.† But Winnie was racing on. â€Å"You're the one who's going to unite the shapeshifters and the witches. You're going to marry a prince of the shapeshifters, and then we're all going to be like this.† She held up two intertwined fingers. Iliana stared at her. â€Å"I'm only seventeen. I'm not marrying anybody.† â€Å"Well, you can do a promise ceremony; that's binding. The witches would accept it, and I think the shapeshifters would.† She glanced at Keller for confirmation. Keller pinched the bridge of her nose. â€Å"I'm just a grunt; I can't speak for the ‘shifters.† Winnie was already turning back to Iliana, her curls shaking with earnestness. â€Å"Really, you know,† she said, â€Å"it's incredibly important. Right now, the Night World is split. Vampires on one side, witches on the other. And the shapeshifters-well, they could go either way. And that's what could determine the battle.† â€Å"Look-â€Å" â€Å"The witches and the shapeshifters haven't been allies for thirty thousand-â€Å" â€Å"I don't care!† Full-blown hysteria. It was about as scary as a six-week-old kitten hissing, but it was the best raving Iliana could manage. Both her small fists were clenched, and her face and throat were flushed. â€Å"I don't care about the shapeshifters or the witches. I'm just a normal kid with a normal life, and I want to go home! I don't know anything about fighting. Even if I believed all this stuff, I couldn't help you. I hate PE; I'm totally uncoordinated. I get sick when I see blood. And-† She looked around and made an inarticulate sound of exasperation. â€Å"And I lost my purse.† Keller stood up. â€Å"Forget your purse.† â€Å"It had my mom's credit card in it. She's going to kill me if I come home without that. I just- where's my purse?† â€Å"Look, you little idiot,† Keller said. â€Å"Worry about your mother, not about her credit card.† Diana backed up a step. Even in the middle of a hysterical fit, she was beautiful beyond words. Strands of angel-fine hair stuck to her flushed, wet cheeks. Her eyes were dark as twilight, shadowed by heavy lashes-and they wouldn't quite meet Keller's. â€Å"I don't know what you mean.† â€Å"Yes, you do. Where's your mom going to be when the end of the world comes? Is a credit card going to save her then?† Iliana was in a corner now. Keller could hear both Nissa and Winnie making warning noises. She knew herself that this was the wrong way to get someone on their side. But patience wasn't one of Keller's great virtues. Neither was keeping her temper. â€Å"Let's see,† Galen said, and his voice was like cool water flowing through the room. â€Å"Maybe we could take a little break-â€Å" â€Å"I don't need advice from you,† Keller snapped. â€Å"And if this little idiot is too stupid to understand that she can't turn her back on this, we have to show her.† â€Å"I'm not an idiot!† â€Å"Then you're just a big baby? Scared?† Iliana sputtered again. But there was unexpected fire in her violet eyes as she did it. She was looking right at Keller now, and for a moment Keller thought that there might be a breakthrough. Then she heard a noise. Her ears picked it up before either Winnie's or Nissa's. A car on the street outside. â€Å"Company,† Keller said. She noticed that Galen had stiffened. Had he heard it? Winnie was moving to stand behind the door; Nissa slipped as quietly as a shadow to the window. It was dark outside now, and vampire eyes were good at night. â€Å"Blue car,† Nissa said softly. â€Å"Looks like them inside.† â€Å"Who?† Diana said. Keller gestured at her to be quiet. â€Å"Winnie?† â€Å"I have to wait until they cross the wards.† A pause, then she broke into a smile. â€Å"It's her!† â€Å"Who?† Iliana said. â€Å"I thought nobody was supposed to know we were here.† Good thinking. Logical, Keller thought. â€Å"This is someone I called. Someone who came all the way fromNevada and has been waiting to see you.† She went to the door. It took a few minutes for the people in the car to get out-they moved slowly. Keller could hear the crunch of footsteps and the sound of a cane. She opened the door. There was no light outside; the figures approaching were in shadow until they actually reached the threshold. The woman who stepped in was old. So old that anyone's first thought on first seeing her was How can she still be alive? Her skin was creased into what seemed like hundreds of translucent folds. Her hair was pure white and almost as fine as Diana's, but there wasn't much of it. Her already tiny figure was stooped almost double. She walked with a cane in one hand and the other tucked into the arm of a nondescript young man. But the eyes that met Keller's were anything but senile. They were bright and almost steely, gray with just the faintest touch of lavender. â€Å"The Goddess's bright blessings on you all,† she said, and smiled around the room. It was Winnie who answered. â€Å"We're honored by your presence-Grandma Harman.† In the background, Diana demanded plaintively for the third time, â€Å"Who?† â€Å"She's your great-great-aunt,† Winnie said, her voice quiet with awe. â€Å"And the oldest of the Harmans. She's the Crone of all the Witches.† Diana muttered something that might have been, â€Å"She looks like it.† Keller stepped in before Winnie could attack her. She introduced everyone. Grandma Harman's keen eyes flickered when Galen's turn came, but she merely nodded. â€Å"This is my apprentice and driver, Toby,† she told them. â€Å"He goes everywhere with me, so you can speak freely in front of him.† Toby helped her to the couch, and everyone else sat, too-except Diana, who stubbornly stayed in her corner. â€Å"How much have you told her?† Grandma Harman asked. â€Å"Almost everything,† Keller said. â€Å"And?† â€Å"She-isn't quite certain.† â€Å"I am certain,† Diana piped up. â€Å"I want to go home.† Grandma Harman extended a knobby hand toward her. â€Å"Come here, child. I want to take a look at my great-great-niece.† Tm not your great-great-niece,† Diana said. But with those steely-but-soft eyes fixed on her, she took one step forward. â€Å"Of course you are; you just don't know it. Do you realize, you're the image of my mother when she was your age? And I'll bet your great-grandmother looked like her, too.† Grandma Harman patted the couch beside her. â€Å"Come here. I'm not going to hurt you. My name is Edgith, and your great-grandmother was my little sister, Elspeth.† Diana blinked slowly. â€Å"Great-grandmother Elspeth?† â€Å"It was almost ninety years ago that I last saw her. It was just before the First World War. She and our baby brother, Emmeth, were separated from the rest of the family. We all thought they were dead, but they were being raised inEngland . They grew up and had children there, and eventually some of those children came toAmerica . Without ever suspecting their real heritage, of course. It's taken us a long time to track down their descendants.† Iliana had taken another involuntary step. She seemed fascinated by what the old woman was saying. â€Å"Mom always talked about Great-grandmother Elspeth. She was supposed to be so beautiful that a prince fell in love with her.† â€Å"Beauty has always run in our family,† Grandma Harman said carelessly. â€Å"Beauty beyond comparison, ever since the days of Hellewise Hearth-Woman, our foremother. But that isn't the important thing about being a Harman.† ‘It isn't?† Iliana said doubtfully. â€Å"No.† The old woman banged her cane. â€Å"The important thing, child, is the art Witchcraft. You are a itch, Iliana; it's in your blood. It always will be. And you're the gift of the Harmans in this last fight Now, listen carefully.† Staring at the far wall, she recited slowly and deliberately: â€Å"One from the land of kings long forgotten; One from the hearth which still holds the spark; One from the Day World where two eyes are watching; One from the twilight to be one with the dark.† Even when she had finished, the words seemed to hang in the air of the room. No one spoke. Diana's eyes had changed. She seemed to be looking inside herself, at something only she could see. It was as if deeply buried memories were stirring. â€Å"That's right,† Grandma Harman said softly. â€Å"You can feel the truth of what I'm telling you. It's all there, the instinct, the art, if you just let it come out. Even the courage is there.† Suddenly, the old woman's voice was ringing. â€Å"You're the spark in the poem, Iliana. The hope of the witches. Now, what do you say? Are you going to help us beat the darkness or not?†